Phenomenon of polyembryony. Genetic heterogeneity of seeds

Phenomenon of polyembryony. Genetic heterogeneity of seeds Different concepts of polyembryony and genetic heterogeneity of seeds in flower plants have been reviewed. Different types, ways, and forms of plant reproduction appeared in the course of evolution as a consequences of the attached mode of life and autotrophy. This is ascribed to totipotency, “stemminess” of plant cells, and presence of constantly functioning meristems, which determined to a great extent the system of plant safety. There are two ways of formation of a new individual: sexual process → gamospermy involving meiosis and gamete fusion and asexual process → agamospermy without meiosis and gamete fusion and two types of reproduction: seed and vegetative. Both processes may take place simultaneously in one seed, as a result of which many embryos of different origins are formed: uniparental and biparental inheritance. Traditionally, this phenomenon is called polyembryony. It comprises embryoidogeny (a new category of vegetative reproduction): formation of somatic embryos (= embryoids) in the flower, seed, and on vegetative organs. Genetic heterogeneity is one of the most important characteristics of seeds, which is based on different phenomena, such as embryogeny, embryoidogeny, and gametophytic and sporophytic apomixis. When describing two types of polyembryony, sporophytic (nucellar, integumental, cleavage) and gametophytic (synergidal, antipodal), a great attention is paid to characterization of initial cells of the sexual and adventive embryos. A new concept of apogamety is developed from new positions (totipotency and “stemminess”), which is based on different genesis of cells of the egg and antipodal systems. Five possible pathways of formation of the adventive embryos have been proposed from cells of the egg apparatus. Specific features of the formation of adventive embryos in the case of gametophytic apomixis, such as androgenesis and semigamy, are discussed. Morphogenesis of the sexual and adventive embryos proceeds in the mother organism and is determined by the origin and formation of their initials, types of ovule and embryo sac, and specific features of developmental biology. This determines parallelism in their development. The main difference consists in the way of reproduction: heterophasic and homophasic. The phenomenon of polyembryony and genetic heterogeneity of seeds is essential for development of the theory of reproduction and applied research related to seed productivity of plants. Russian Journal of Developmental Biology Springer Journals

Phenomenon of polyembryony. Genetic heterogeneity of seeds

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Copyright © 2007 by Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Life Sciences; Developmental Biology; Animal Anatomy / Morphology / Histology
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