ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2011, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 170–177. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © S. S. Kramarenko, S. V. Leonov, 2011, published in Ekologiya, 2011, No. 2, pp. 153–160.
In Ukraine, the genus
L., 1758 is represented
by four species:
L., 1758. Only the first two species live
in the Crimea, with
being more wide
spread and abundant. This species has a circumpontic
range; it is little known from Europe and occurs in
Ukraine only in the Black Sea Region, Sea of Azov
Region, and Crimea (Shileiko, 1978), locally reaching
relatively high abundance.
The shell banding pattern polymorphism in this
species is similar to that in species of the genus
The first attempts to analyze the phenetic variation of
the shell banding pattern in
were made by
Popov and his students (Popov and Kramarenko,
1997; Kramarenko, 2002), and this research was sub
sequently developed in Leonov’s (2005) dissertation.
However, additional material obtained in the past few
years provided a basis for analyzing the formation of
the phenetic structure of Crimean
lations in more detail.
The main purpose of this study was to analyze
manifestations of the shell banding pattern polymor
from populations living in differ
ent physiographic regions of the Crimea and to eluci
date possible mechanisms of its formation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Samples were taken from 28 local
ulations that represented all physiographic regions of
the Crimea, collecting adult snails or their shells
within 150 to 200m
plots. Five out of the 28 popu
lations (nos. 1–5) were from parks or hedges in the city
of Simferopol; ten (nos. 6–15), from different biotopes
of the southern Crimean coast; nine (nos. 16–24), from
the steppe Crimea; and four (nos. 25–28), from differ
ent biotopes of the Kerch Peninsula (Fig. 1).
All this material is stored in the malacological col
lection of the Department of Zoology, Taurida
National University (Simferopol).
The banding pattern polymorphism of
shells was analyzed in the laboratory, designating dif
ferent morphs according to the conventional system
(Cain and Sheppard, 1950). The frequency of each
morph was calculated for snails from each population
and group of populations (from the city, southern
coast, steppe, and Kerch Peninsula). These values
were subsequently transformed using Fisher’s arcsine
transformation to level off the influence of sample size.
The degree of diversity in individual samples or
their groups was estimated by calculating the number
of recorded morphs differing in shell banding pattern
). In addition, parameters of population diversity
were calculated: the average number of morphs (
and the proportion of rare morphs (
) according to
Zhivotovsky’s (1991) formulas, the Shannon index
), and the Simpson (
). The calculated parame
ters of the diversity of particular populations were
compared between areas of the Crimea using the pro
cedure of bootstrap (permutation) resampling with
10000 iterations (Shitikov et al., 2008) in the EcoSim
v. 7.72 program (Gotelli and Entsminger, 2001).
Phenetic Population Structure of the Land Snail
(Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae) in the Crimea
S. S. Kramarenko
and S. V. Leonov
Nikolaev State Agrarian University, ul. Parizhskoi Kommuny 9, Nikolaev, 54021 Ukraine; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Vernadsky Taurida National University, pr. V.I. Vernadskogo 4, Simferopol, 95005 Ukraine; email: email@example.com
Received September 21, 2009
—The polymorphism of shell banding pattern has been studied in Crimean populations of the land
The results show that snails from different regions of the Crimea are characterized by spe
cific types of shell polymorphism, the differences between them concerning mainly the number of observed
shell morphs rather than their occurrence frequency. In particular, the proportion of snails with darkly col
ored shells increases in relatively cool habitats. However, among the microevolutionary processes determin
ing the type and degree of polymorphism in
populations, a major role is also played by stochastic
genetic phenomena, because the species exists in semiisolated colonies with low effective abundance and
high risk of local extinction.
: shell banding pattern polymorphism,