PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORARY
REFRACTORY VANADIUM SLAGS
V. A. Perepelitsyn,
A. L. Smirnov,
L. A. Smirnov,
and V. A. Rovnushkin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 5 pp. 9 – 14, May 2009.
Results are provided for a thorough study of a valuable variety of engineering stone, i.e. contemporary vana
dium slags, that are a class of “artificial (secondary) technogenic ore” for preparing a whole range of vana
dium compounds and alloys. Chemical, petrographic, x-ray phase analysis and x-ray microanalysis are used to
determine the mineral (phase) composition, to study phase-by-phase distribution of elements, and to specify
slag microstructure. A temperature-time sequence is established for crystallization of spinellid and various sil
icates during molten slag cooling. The information obtained is necessary for obtaining the required properties
of slag, and it is also interesting for the petrology of ore ultramafites. In view of the features of the mineral
composition and microstructure contemporary vanadium slags are related to refractory materials (refractori
Keywords: vanadium spinelid, fayalite, pyroxene, glass phase, crystal, dendrite, skeleton, elementary cell,
ion radius, distribution of elements, x-ray microanalysis.
In geochemical behavior in the earth’s core vanadium is
related to a number of dissipated chemical elements, and
therefore deposits with a high content of this element are
very rare. More than 90% of the world reserves are concen
trated in the form of impurities (0.1 – 1.5%
) in titanium
magnetite ores, from which by complex multistage technol
ogy preparation of compounds and alloys of this element is
accomplished. Russia exhibits the largest reserves in the
world of vanadium-containing titanium magnetite ores. The
Kachkanarsk ore complex is the only one worked currently
and it contains about 12 billion tons of confirmed mining re
serves of titanium magnetite ores, within which there are
more than 9 million tons of vanadium. Currently in world
production of vanadium compounds the proportion of Russia
is about 30%.
In Russia and China processing of vanadium-containing
titanium magnetite ore is accomplished by a pyrometal
lurgical scheme for obtaining steel and subsidiary extraction
of vanadium as a saleable product. This scheme includes a
number of successive stages:
1 — mining, crushing, grinding and enrichment of tita-
nium magnetite ore with preparation of iron-vanadium con-
centrates (Kachkanarsk GOK — Vanadium);
2 — caking of concentrate with preparation of an ag-
glomerate and pellets (Kachkanarsk GOK – Vanadium);
3 — reduction smelting of caked raw material in a blast
furnace with preparation of vanadium cast iron with
0.4 – 0.6% vanadium and titanium slag with 8 – 25% TiO
(OAO MTMK, OAO ChusMZ);
4 — oxidation treatment of vanadium cast iron in a con
verter at a temperature not above 1400°C with preparation of
a carbon metal product and vanadium slag with 15 – 25%
(OAO MTMK, OAO ChusMZ).
As a result of metallurgical processing concentration of
vanadium in the slag compared with the original ore in
creases by almost two orders of magnitude. Vanadium slag is
a valuable intermediate product from which after sintering
with alkali additions, trioxide, pentoxide and other vanadium
compounds are obtained by a hydrometallurgical method.
Production of the vanadium metallurgical product, i.e. ferro
vanadium, is accomplished in electric furnace by metallo
thermic reduction of V
with silicon or aluminum (AOA
Vanadium — Tula, OAO ChusMZ). Thus, vanadium slags
are an important starting technogenic material (raw semifin
ished product) for preparing a whole range of vanadium
compounds and alloys.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 3, 2009
1083-4877/09/5003-0169 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
OAO Eastern Refractory Institute, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Ural Institute of Metals, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Here and subsequently wt.% is indicated (apart from sections 3
and 5 where vol.% is especially shown).