PERICLASE-CARBON COMPOSITE REFRACTORIES
WITH A NEW COMPLEX BINDER
T. V. Yarushina,
V. A. Akbashev,
V. A. Plyukhin,
A. M. Akbashev,
I. M. Gyrlya,
and A. N. Parshikov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 8, pp. 14 – 20, August, 2007.
Original article submitted March 19, 2007.
We describe the development of the technology of periclase–carbon composite refractories with a new com
plex binder, which combines the properties of phenolic resins and coal-tar pitch. Theoretical analysis and the
results of application in steel teeming ladle lining show that a combination of these thermoreactive and ther
moplastic components in the new binder provides a more compact (denser) structure of the coke framework
(residue) possessing increased resistance to oxidation. Articles made of the new composite refractory have
been successfully tested in the lining of steel teeming ladles. The wear characteristics of new lining materials
in steel ladles has been studied.
The intensification of technological operations involved
in the production and processing of steel complicates the
conditions of operation of the refractory lining in metallurgi-
cal setups. The most material-consuming unit with respect to
refractories is the steel teeming ladle. In Russia, the expendi-
tures for steel-ladle refractories account for about 25% of the
total cost of refractories in the entire cycle of metallurgical
works. This circumstance explains increased attention de
voted to the quality, reliability, and safety of lining in steel
teeming ladles. Periclase-carbon composite refractories
(PCRs) are widely used in the lining of modern steel teeming
ladles [1 – 6]. Table 1 summarizes the main factors of wear
for PCRs used in various parts of lining of a steel teeming
The degradation of teeming-ladle refractories takes place
at high temperatures under the action of slag and gas phase
and the moving liquid and solid media with mechanical and
thermomechanical loads. The main factors leading to wear of
the carbon-containing composite refractories are (i) oxida
tion of the carbonaceous component by the melted slag and
hot gaseous medium in the metal zone and (ii) dissolution in
the slag, corrosive wear, and cleavage in the slag zone.
PCRs possess high corrosion resistance and thermal sta
bility due to certain features of the graphite phase, namely, a
small thermal expansion and low wetting by slag. A signifi
cant disadvantage of these materials, as well as of other car
bon-containing composite refractories, is their loosening
caused by oxidation of the carbonaceous component.
The experience of commercial applications shows that
the introduction of expensive antioxidants (increasing the
cost of articles by 10 – 40%) not always provides the neces-
sary increase in the service life of modified refractories. Im-
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 3, 2007
1083-4877/07/4803-0170 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Magnezit Group Ltd., Magnezit Plant, Nizhneserginsk Metalware
and Metallurgical Works, Russia.
TABLE 1. The Main Factors of Wear and Required Properties for
PCRs Used in Steel Teeming Ladle Lining 
Dissolution in slag
Oxidation of carbon:
by molten slag
by gaseous phase
) main factor; (´) secondary factor; (
) less significant factor.