As tools and techniques to measure experimental granular flows become increasingly sophisticated, there is a need to rigorously assess the validity of the approaches used. This paper critically assesses the performance of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) for the measurement of granular flow properties. After a brief review of the PIV and PTV techniques, we describe the most common sources of error arising from the applications of these two methods. For PTV, a series of controlled experiments of a circular motion is used to illustrate the errors associated with the particle centroid uncertainties and the linear approximation of particle trajectories. The influence of these errors is then examined in experiments on dry monodisperse granular flows down an inclined chute geometry. The results are compared to those from PIV analysis in which errors are influenced by the size of the interrogation region. While velocity profiles estimated by the two techniques show strong agreement, second order statistics, e.g. the granular temperature, display very different profiles. We show how the choice of the sampling interval, or frame rate, affects both the magnitude of granular temperature and the profile shape determined in the case of PTV. In addition, the determined magnitudes of granular temperature from PIV tends to be considerably lower when directly measured or largely overestimated when theoretically scaled than those of PTV for the same tests, though the shape of the profiles is less sensitive to frame rate. We finally present solid concentration profiles obtained at the sidewalls and and examine their relationship to the determined shear rate and granular temperature profiles.
Granular Matter – Springer Journals
Published: May 12, 2017
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