Introgressive hybridizations have often been observed between native and introduced trouts of North America (Oncorhynchus spp.) and Europe (Salmo spp.), including some lineages that have been isolated for more than a million years. These observations have suggested that introgression is the expected result between introduced and indigenous conspecific salmonids. However, an examination of published information reveals a high variability in such anticipated gene flow. Many studies have noted the relative ease of translocating freshwater over anadromous salmonids, and this difference has been related to the more complex adaptations of anadromous populations (e.g., freshwater and marine residence, smoltification, juvenile and adult migration) that obstruct their translocation to conspecifically colonized areas. This contrast extends to introgressive capabilities where examples of introgression among freshwater populations predominate. Despite intensive introductions of non-native salmonids, indigenous anadromous populations commonly resist introgression. However, within major lineages, anadromous populations appear to be more susceptible to introgression. Measuring the extent and dynamics of such introgressions remains challenging because subgroups within major lineages lie on or below the threshold for detection by molecular genetic markers. These substructures appear to reflect the more rapid evolution of directional selection promoting, for instance, temporal or microgeographic divergence within a population unit defined by genetic markers. Consequently, management that assumes panmixia within a particular region based on even intensive molecular genetic analysis will inevitably erode and prevent reformation of this substructure to the detriment of the overall genetic variability and productivity.
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 8, 2004
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