In India, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains one of the major causative agents of pediatric encephalitis. Macrophages support various neurotropic viruses and influence the immune response. However, the functional status of human macrophages during JEV infection remains unidentified. In this study, we examined the cytokine response and co-stimulatory marker levels in primary human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) infected with JE057434 (neurovirulent, primary clinical isolate) or SA14-14-2 (non-neurovirulent, live-attenuated vaccine) JEV strains. We also examined the differential susceptibility of these JEV strains to antiviral effects of interferon and nitric oxide. The results indicate that both JEV strains are capable of inducing various cytokines (type-I IFN, TNFα, IL6 and IL8) and co-stimulatory molecules (CD86 and CD80) in MDMs. However, they varied in replication potential and corresponding interferon sensitivity. SA14-14-2 was highly susceptible to interferon and nitric oxide when compared to JE057434. Thus, reduction in infectious virion production and increased sensitivity of SA14-14-2 towards interferon in MDMs could potentially play a role in limiting viral spread to additional target tissues.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 1, 2012
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