Sex Roles, Vol. 40, Nos. 9/10, 1999
Paternal Involvement in Child Care as a Function
of Maternal Employment in Nuclear and
Extended Families in India
Northwest Missouri State Uni
Jaipaul L. Roopnarine
ement in childcare as a function of family structure and
maternal employm ent status was assessed in 92 dual-wage and 103 single-
wage Indian families with preschool-aged children residing in different areas
of New Delhi, India. Mothers and fathers completed Radin’ s Paternal
ement in Child Care Index (PICCI). Data showed that parents in
single-wage families spent more time in primary caregi
ing compared with
parents in dual-wage fam ilies. Fathers’ in
ement scores on the different
components of the PICCI did not
ary as a function of mother’ s employment
status or family structure. Data are discussed with respect to the rigidity of
men’s roles in a historically patriarchal society.
Within the cross-cultural context, our conceptual understanding of gender
roles has in large measure been affected by the recognition of familial,
social, and cultural variables as important for determining the changing
dynamics of male-female relationships (see Lamb, 1987; Roopnarine &
Carter, 1992; Roopnarine & Brown, 1997). For example, patte rns of care-
giving across cultures and in diffe rent ethnic groups are ofte n the result of
social behaviors that emerge from extended periods of caregiving, organize d
social networks, acceptable norms of male and female behavior, and family
This research was partially supported by the Danish International Development Age ncy.
This support is grate fully acknowledged.
To whom reprint requests should be addressed at Department of Child and Family Studies,
Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1250.
1999 Plenum Publishing Corporation