Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 8, pp. 12041211.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © R.M. Abdullina, I.N. Voropaev, A.V. Romanenko, V.A. Chumachenko, A.S. Noskova, A.S. Mashnin, 2012, published in Zhurnal
Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 8, pp. 12651272.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Partial Hydrogenation of Sunﬂ ower Oil: Inﬂ uence
of the Process Conditions on the Physicochemical
Properties of the Products
R. M. Abdullina
, I. N. Voropaev
, A. V. Romanenko
, V. A. Chumachenko
, A. S. Noskov
and A. S. Mashnin
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
EFKO-NanoTech, Moscow, Russia
Received May 29, 2012
Abstract—The inﬂ uence of the process conditions on the fatty acid composition and solid fat content of the products
was examined for partial hydrogenation of sunﬂ ower oil in a static reactor using 1.0 wt% Pd/C powder catalyst.
The solid fat content curves of the oil hydrogenation products were analyzed in relation to the process conditions.
Catalytic hydrogenation of vegetable oils is a process
aimed to increase the oxidation stability of natural oils
and fats during storage and processing via changing the
consistency and increasing the melting point of the prod-
uct, as well as to produce hydrogenated fats with desired
fatty acid composition.
Currently, hydrogenation processes in fat and oil
industry employ nickel catalysts (Pricat, Nysosel, H, SP,
etc.) whose application may entail release of allergenic
and carcinogenic toxic nickel impurities into hydrogena-
tion products . This necessitates the search for new
efﬁ cient catalysts suitable for safe use in hydrogenation
of vegetable oils.
Alternatives to nickel catalysts are offered by catalysts
based on platinum group metals: Pd, Ru, Rh, Ir, Pt [2,
3]. Among them, special attention is given to supported
Pt and Pd catalysts which, compared to nickel-based
catalysts, exhibit a higher activity in hydrogenation of
double bonds and a lower ability to promote their trans
Catalysts of hydrogenation of oils are predominantly
supported on kieselguhr (SiO
, and carbon materi-
als [1–10]. In view of the fact that fatty acid triglycerides
are large molecules ca. 2.3 nm in length, there is a need
in macro- or mesoporous supports for efﬁ cient hydroge-
nation of such substrates. Experiments  showed that
active and selective catalysts for oil hydrogenation should
have an average pore size exceeding 3.5 nm.
In food industry, catalytic processes of partial hydro-
genation of vegetable oils are typically organized in such
a way that the products mainly accumulate triglycerides
of monounsaturated acids, while the proportion of trans
isomers does not exceed a speciﬁ ed level [4, 5, 10].
Therefore, an important characteristic of this process is
its selectivity. Two main types of selectivity are distin-
, trans selectivity, which represents the ratio
of the amount of isomerized double bonds to the total
amount of hydrogenated double bonds [12–14], and S
selectivity toward oleic acid formation, which represents
the ratio of the amount of oleic acid produced to the total
amount of linoleic acid consumed [5, 11].
The cis/trans isomer ratio can be subject to directed
control [11, 12, 14, 15] via providing conditions condu-
cive to changes in dissolved hydrogen concentration. For
example, an increase in dissolved hydrogen concentration
on the catalyst surface will cause the content of saturated
bonds in the triglyceride molecule to increase, and the
proportion of trans isomers in the products, to decrease.