1067-4136/05/3601- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1–7. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 1, 2005, pp. 3–10.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Koshkarova, Koshkarov.
Certain aspects of the Holocene history of forest
cover in Evenkia have been considered in a number of
palynological studies (Kind, 1974; Kutaf’eva, 1975;
Kol’tsova, 1981; Savina, 1986). However, what
remains an urgent problem is organization of compre-
hensive studies aimed at reconstructing the evolution of
the environment and obtaining more reliable data on the
dynamics of forest ecosystems and the conditions of
their existence in Central Siberia in the recent period
The purposes of our study were as follows: (1) to
reveal the degree of correspondence between the quan-
titative ratios of the components of surface macrore-
main assemblages [in Russian papers, seed ﬂoras, or
seed assemblages (Nikitin, 1969, 1999)] and the com-
position of present-day vegetation in the same localities
and in the whole region, which is important from a
methodological standpoint; and (2) to reconstruct alter-
ations of plant communities on the basis of soil mac-
roremain assemblages and to estimate climatic condi-
tions during the corresponding periods.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
To accomplish the ﬁrst purpose, we studied subre-
cent samples taken from the soil and peat bog in the
middle reaches of the Nizhnyaya Tunguska River, in
localities differing in geomorphology (the terrace
above the ﬂoodplain and terrace slopes differ in expo-
sure) and in the structure of the plant cover (Fig. 1).
This region of the Nizhnyaya Tunguska valley has a
low, hilly, terraced topography (
According to the scheme of natural zoning, the study
area is a part of the Ilempeya-Nidym high middle-taiga
trappean plateau (
, 1964) and is
included in the Nizhnyaya Tunguska forest-site district
of middle-taiga light conifer forests (Smagin
1977). The main forest-forming species is
(Rupr.) Rupr. The dwarf shrub–lichen and dwarf
shrub–moss forest types dominate in the region.
The majority of sampling sites were on the left bank
of the Nizhnyaya Tunguska River, within 3 km of the
river, where the natural vegetative cover was less dis-
turbed. All sections were situated at the boundary
between the middle and northern taiga, i.e., in an eco-
, 1964) (Fig. 1). We used the
geobotanical characteristics of the vegetation presented
by Kol’tsova (1981).
For the ﬁrst purpose, the samples for carpological
analysis were taken from the surface soil layer to a
depth of 2–5 cm and, in the bog, 10 cm from the base
of the moss cushion. For the second purpose, the sam-
ples were taken from each 5-cm layer, taking into
account the stratigraphy of the sections (the transitional
AB horizon was excluded from sampling). The samples
were treated according to Nikitin (1969), viewed under
an MBS-2 microscope at a magniﬁcation of
plant remains were identiﬁed at higher magniﬁcation
87). The results of carpological analysis
were interpreted using the methodology developed for
Holocene assemblages (Koshkarova, 1986). Climatic
conditions were quantitatively estimated using the ana-
log method (Budyko, 1991). Plant species were identi-
ﬁed using the book by Cherepanov (1995).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The macroremain assemblages extracted from the
subrecent samples are similar in species composition
(in the zonal aspect) but differ in quantitative ratios of
the species (Fig. 2). This is explained by differences in
the genesis of enclosing sediments and in the periods of
Paleoecology and Dynamics of Forest Ecosystems
in Central Evenkia during the Past 2400 Years
V. L. Koshkarova and A. D. Koshkarov
Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036
Received November 25, 2003
—New data on the composition of surface assemblages of plant macroremains from soil and swamp
samples have been obtained in the study of geomorphologically different localities in the middle reaches of the
Nizhnyaya Tunguska River. The results of paleocarpological analysis of forest soil sections supported by rele-
vant palynological and geochronological data are presented. Natural changes of the forest cover over the past
2400 years and quantitative characteristics of the paleoclimate during each stage are described.
: plant macroremains, the Holocene, dynamics of forest ecosystems, paleoclimate.