OXIDE-BASED CARBON SLIDE GATE PLATES
N. A. Vyatkina
and O. V. Nadymova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 12, pp. 24 – 25, December, 2005.
Original article submitted April 8, 2005.
A brief description of a technology for manufacture of corundum-graphite plates for slide gates of steel ladles
is given. Results of industrial tests of newly developed reusable plates are presented.
Most steel manufactured worldwide and in Russia is
poured using slide gates. Therefore improving the service
properties of the slide gates’ major components — refractory
plates — has been and continues to be an issue of pivotal
concern for technologists.
The low durability of plates is due to a number of rea-
sons, one of which is the traditional use of slide gates of ob-
solete design, which makes impossible in-process inspection
of the plates and their rapid (if needed) replacement. Until
now, no functionally reliable plates capable of sustaining
multiple pouring operations — six or more heats — is avail-
able from domestic manufacturers.
With foreign manufacturers, of wide use are the
“flap”-type slide gates, designed in a manner allowing pre
ventive inspection of the plates and thus making decisions on
In Russia, work is currently in progress aimed at the de
velopment of a domestic technology for manufacture of reus
able oxide-based carbon plates.
Periclase-based slide plates, in traditional service at do
mestic metallurgical plants, fail to provide satisfactory multi
ple use because of their low thermal stability. The advent of
new technologies using vacuum heat treatment and inert gas
blowing, and introduction of powdered and alloying addi
tions directly into the steel ladle, imposed increasingly strin
gent conditions on the service of slide plates; the pouring
even of single-heat metal met with difficulties. Leading met
allurgical export-oriented manufacturers were obliged to pur
chase plates from foreign suppliers; complete with the plates,
other additional accessories — refractory components for
gate pouring of steel, including the nested block, ladle noz
zle, and collector nozzle — had to be procured.
Normally, plates of corundum-graphite composition are
used for slide gates; for pouring high-quality steels, such as
low-carbon and corrosion-resistant steels or automobile body
sheet, corundum-graphite plates are only used.
A feasibility analysis carried out at the Bogdanovich
Ogneupory JSC has shown that this enterprise has a suffi-
cient technological potential for starting production of the
components for slide gate ladles. The facilities available are:
technological equipment for production of electrofused
modern intensive mixers (Eirich Co.) enabling the prepa-
ration of high-quality refractory mixes;
heavy-duty hydraulic presses (with a pressing force of up
to 1600 tons) enabling the preparation of high-density pre
high-temperature burning kilns;
research and engineering services capable of developing
and introducing new manufacturing technologies.
Problems with which specialists at the Ogneupory JSC
were confronted involved the production of components for
use in the slide gate pouring technology and the development
of a technology for manufacture of corundum-graphite slide
gate plates with a long service life — not inferior to that
available from foreign manufacturers.
A major challenge in the development of a corundum-
graphite plate technology was creating a material with fine-
porous structure. To prevent carbon burnout and provide
conditions for effective reaction-assisted sintering, a coke
pack was used. The raw materials used were electrofused co
rundum and mullite (both of in-house production), tabular
alumina (purchased from a foreign manufacturer), flake
graphite, a phenol-containing binder (which was a mixture of
a phenol-based powder binder (PPB) and ethylene glycol, of
domestic production), and antioxidant additions. The proper
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 47, No. 1, 2006
1083-4877/06/4701-0019 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Ogneupory Joint-Stock Co., Bogdanovich, Sverdlovsk Region,