Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 11, pp. 2035−2040.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © N.A. Rakhimova, S.V. Kudashev, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 11, pp. 1905−1910.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Organophilization of Na
with Polyﬂ uorinated Alcohols
N. A. Rakhimova and S. V. Kudashev
Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, Russia
Received February 18, 2010
Abstract—Modiﬁ cation of Na
-montmorillonite with polyﬂ uorinated alcohols was performed. The structure of the
modiﬁ ed Na
-montmorillonite was studied by derivatography and Fourier IR spectroscopy. The effect of calcite
as clay component on the capability for physical and chemical binding of polyﬂ uorinated alcohols was revealed.
Polymeric nanocomposites containing an inorganic
phase show much promise as new types of structural
materials. They exhibit improved physicomechanical
and service characteristics [1–4]. Among natural
aluminosilicates, layered montmorillonite (MMT) is
promising ﬁ ller for polymers. Its stacks have a symmetry
plane and are oriented toward each other with likely
charged layers of oxygen atoms, so that the silicon–
oxygen layers are retained by van der Waals forces .
This mineral can be readily separated into lamellas of
nanometer thickness, which ensures large area of contact
of the ﬁ ller with the polymer matrix [6, 7].
Formation of perﬂ uoroalkyl organophilic layers,
i.e., organophilization of MMT, favors penetration of
polymer macromolecules into interlayer galleries of
clays owing to an increase in the interlayer distance.
Polar polyﬂ uorinated alcohols are of indubitable interest
as effective modiﬁ ers of MMT surface.
With the aim of hydrophobization of the MMT
surface and enhancement of its afﬁ nity for polymeric
materials, we performed adsorption of polyﬂ uorinated
telomeric alcohols (PFAs) H(CF
the degree of telomerization n = 2–5, which are wastes
from production of 1,1,3-trihydroperﬂ uoro-1-propanol
used for CD treatment . The use of polyﬂ uorinated
compounds for modiﬁ cation of polymers is promising
because of considerable enhancement of the hydrolytic
stability, of the light, heat, and wear resistance, and of
other useful properties of polymeric materials, owing to
unique nature of poly- and perﬂ uorinated groups .
In this study we examined the relationships of MMT
organophilization with PFAs with the aim to prepare
ﬂ uorinated systems characterized by highly dispersed
state with pronounced shape anisotropy for imparting
properties of polyﬂ uorinated groups and aluminosilicate
matrix to polymeric materials.
We studied a Nа
-ММТ sample with a cation-exchange
capacity of 80.96 mg-equiv/100 g. As clay modiﬁ ers we
used pure grade PFAs, and as solvent, absolute alcohol.
MMT particles in an amount of 1 g were dispersed in
30 ml of ethanol in an ultrasonic ﬁ eld for 1 h. Then 1 g of
PFA in 20 ml of ethanol was added to the dispersion of
MMT particles in ethanol, and dispersing was continued
for 5–30 min at 70°С. The modiﬁ ed MMT was washed
with ethanol (10 ml) to zero concentration of PFA in
solution. Then residual ethanol was evaporated from the
clay, and the product was dried at 100°С. The amount of
the modiﬁ er absorbed by the clay was evaluated from
the MMT weight gain determined gravimetrically and
from the residual amount of unchanged PFA.
Experiments on ultrasonic desorption of PFA
molecules from the MMT surface were performed
in ethanol at 70°С until the modiﬁ er concentration in