Organic Matter and Nutrient Removal Performance of Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands Planted with Phragmite karka and Vetiveria zizanioide for Treating Municipal Wastewater

Organic Matter and Nutrient Removal Performance of Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed... Three pilot horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCWs) were constructed, covered with a geomembrane and filled with gravel media. The study compared the performance of the three pilot HSSFCWs, two planted with Vetiveria zizanioide and Phragmite karka, and one without plants, and all containing aeration facilities in treating municipal wastewater. HSSFCWs were loaded at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.025 m/d and a maximum organic loading rate of 6.16 g BOD/m2d with a hydraulic retention time of 6 days. Results show that V. zizanioide had better removal efficiencies (TSS: 92.3%; BOD5: 92.0%; PO4 3−: 86.7%) than P. karka (TSS: 91.3%; BOD5: 90.5%; PO4 3−: 85.6%), whereas P. karka showed better removal efficiency of NH4 + (86%), NO3 − (81.8%) and SO4 2− (91.7%) than V. zizanioide (NH4 +: 83.4%; NO3 −: 81.3%; SO4 2−: 90.5%). Removal rates in unplanted CWs were lower for all parameters: TSS (78%), BOD5 (73%), NH4 + (61.0%), NO3 − (55.5%), PO4 3− (67.6%), SO4 2− (78.1%). Higher removals of total coliform (3 log units) and Escherichia coli (2.4 log units) were obtained in the HSSFCW with plants compared to unplanted units (total coliform: 1.9 log units; Escherichia coli: 1.2 log units). Based on these findings, the treated water can be directly disposed into surface water bodies or used for irrigation as the concentrations of the pollutants are below the standard permissible limits of effluent discharge set by EEPA and WHO. Therefore, both V. zizanioide and P. karka are good candidates for remediation of wastewater by a constructed wetland system. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Environmental Processes Springer Journals

Organic Matter and Nutrient Removal Performance of Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands Planted with Phragmite karka and Vetiveria zizanioide for Treating Municipal Wastewater

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature
Subject
Earth Sciences; Environmental Science and Engineering; Environmental Management; Waste Management/Waste Technology; Water Quality/Water Pollution
ISSN
2198-7491
eISSN
2198-7505
D.O.I.
10.1007/s40710-017-0276-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Three pilot horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCWs) were constructed, covered with a geomembrane and filled with gravel media. The study compared the performance of the three pilot HSSFCWs, two planted with Vetiveria zizanioide and Phragmite karka, and one without plants, and all containing aeration facilities in treating municipal wastewater. HSSFCWs were loaded at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.025 m/d and a maximum organic loading rate of 6.16 g BOD/m2d with a hydraulic retention time of 6 days. Results show that V. zizanioide had better removal efficiencies (TSS: 92.3%; BOD5: 92.0%; PO4 3−: 86.7%) than P. karka (TSS: 91.3%; BOD5: 90.5%; PO4 3−: 85.6%), whereas P. karka showed better removal efficiency of NH4 + (86%), NO3 − (81.8%) and SO4 2− (91.7%) than V. zizanioide (NH4 +: 83.4%; NO3 −: 81.3%; SO4 2−: 90.5%). Removal rates in unplanted CWs were lower for all parameters: TSS (78%), BOD5 (73%), NH4 + (61.0%), NO3 − (55.5%), PO4 3− (67.6%), SO4 2− (78.1%). Higher removals of total coliform (3 log units) and Escherichia coli (2.4 log units) were obtained in the HSSFCW with plants compared to unplanted units (total coliform: 1.9 log units; Escherichia coli: 1.2 log units). Based on these findings, the treated water can be directly disposed into surface water bodies or used for irrigation as the concentrations of the pollutants are below the standard permissible limits of effluent discharge set by EEPA and WHO. Therefore, both V. zizanioide and P. karka are good candidates for remediation of wastewater by a constructed wetland system.

Journal

Environmental ProcessesSpringer Journals

Published: Dec 6, 2017

References

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