Non-governmental and governmental agencies are demanding for environmentally friendly mud systems. This increase in environmental awareness has made the drilling mud service companies to re-evaluate some of the chemicals and materials used as additives for mud systems. In this study, some green materials were considered as possible substitutes for PAC R in water-based drilling fluid systems. The rheological properties of four water-based mud systems with typical compositions were studied at 80 and 150 °F. These two temperature ranges were necessary so as to evaluate the effect of temperature on the viscosity, plastic viscosity and yield point properties of these mud systems formulated with these green materials as viscosifier. These green materials were processed to powder form and sieved to their finest particle sizes to reduce amount of solute that will be present in the water-based drilling fluid formed with the materials. The properties of the formulated mud systems were analyzed using API standard. These green materials behaved optimally as viscosifiers for the formulated water-based mud systems under ambient temperature. Also the mud systems behaviour at 150 °F showed a reduction in the flow properties at this high temperature as recorded in the literatures. From the results of the experiment, we can say that Kian (Averrhoa carambola L.) has the characteristic of being a substitute for PAC R when beneficiated for water-based drilling fluids. Keywords Green materials · Water based mud · Averrhoa carambola · PAC R Introduction and other well instabilities. A notable task confronting mud engineers is how to control and stabilize mud properties to The term drilling mud applies to fluids used to keep up well optimize drilling operation at lowest cost possible. The litera- control and transport drill cuttings from the boreholes to ture has shown that a cluster of mud additives are available the surface. Drilling mud forms an essential part of drilling to treat most of these significant instabilities in the wellbore, operations and the factors considered in proper fluid selec - but the question will be how cost effective these additives tion include drilling performance, anticipated well condition, are per foot drilled, after formulation of drilling mud system. safety of personnel, cost, and mud cuttings disposal (Okoro Ibrahim et al. (2017) outlined some of the functions of a et al. 2015). Drilling muds must be formulated to minimize drilling fluid and they also mentioned that some of its func- problems associated with formation damage, well chemistry tions can contribute to formation damage or permeability impairment. They noted that the selection of suitable mud for individual reservoir is critical. Mud additives contain * Evelyn Bose Ekeinde synthetic and natural chemical compounds that help improve email@example.com their functions during drilling operation; thus, the additives Emmanuel Emeka Okoro used for this specific drilling mud are also critical because firstname.lastname@example.org they define the properties of drilling mud. Ghasemi et al. Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Port (2017) observed from their study that the size of the addi- Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria tives present in a mud system can influence the plastic vis- Petroleum Engineering Department, Covenant University, cosity and yielding point. Elkatatny (2017) emphasized the Ota, Nigeria importance of drilling mud rheological properties and their Chemical Engineering Department, University direct effect on drilling operations. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 316 Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology (2019) 9:315–318 Agwu and Akpabio (2018) in their study noted that, an xanthomonas campestris in controlled condition (Lopes effective, environmental friendly and inexpensive drill- et al. 2015). Some of the most discrete properties of Xanthan ing mud additive should be ideal for mud formulation. gum, which makes it a drilling mud additive, include its use Wajheeuddin and Hossain (2017) highlighted environmen- as a stabilizer, emulsifier (in some cases), suspending agent tal issues and concerns for some of the chemicals used as and a thickener for mud systems (Katzbauer 1998; Luvielmo additives for conventional drilling fluid system, as reasons et al. 2016). why non-governmental and governmental agencies are demanding for environmentally friendly mud system. This Averrhoa carambola L. (Kian) increase in environmental awareness has made the drilling mud service companies to re-evaluate some of the chemicals Narain et al. (2001) and Thomas et al. (2008) in their study and materials used as additives for mud systems. Wajheeud- gave a detailed analysis and observations on physical and din and Hossain (2017) proposed that naturally occurring chemical composition of the material in different maturity materials with similar properties as these chemicals should stages; and also the fruit physico-chemical analysis. Our be used. In line with their study and findings, some of the interest is on the ripe stage. The seed was dried and grinded materials used in this present study have these characteristics to its powder form. The powder form was further sieved with and are also agro-waste materials. a 212 m size sieve and that was the form used for a QAQC test in the mud laboratory (Fig. 1). The Kian powder acted as a thickener during the test process. The viscosity green additives Brachystegia nigerica (Achi) Guar gum powder Brachystegia nigerica (Achi) belongs to the family of legu- Guar gum is a unique substance derived from the Guar plant, minosae and the sub family caesalpiniaceae flowering plants. with numerous usages. Primarily, there are two types of It grows mainly along river banks or swampy areas, though it Guar gum: food grade Guar gum and Industrial grade Guar can be found in well drained soils. Uwaezuoke et al. (2017) gum. For the purpose of this study, the industrial grade Guar in their study listed viscosity and density as vital properties gum will be used. During drilling operations, Guar gum of a mud system; they also identified some green materi- functions as an excellent additive for mud systems because als that can act as thickener in a mud system. Atuanya and of its unique characteristics and properties. These properties Ibhadode (2011), after characterization of Brachystegia in include, but are not limited to, loss control agent, viscosi- their study, concluded that it can be used as reinforcement fiers and polymer (Chudzikowski 1971; Mudgil et al. 2014). in polymer matrix composites; thus, its fibers can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic composites. Xanthan gum Detarium microcarpum (OFFOR) It has also appeared as a highly desirable drilling mud addi- tive that helps in minimizing associated well instabilities. Detarium microcarpum is particularly associated with dry Fundamentally, it is a polysaccharide and a biological poly- savannah. It grows naturally in forests, flowers throughout mer product from carbohydrates; and can be produced from the wet season and bears fruits between November and Fig. 1 Averrhoa carambola L. (Kian) fruit and its powdered form 1 3 Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology (2019) 9:315–318 317 January. It is nutritious, wholesome, and stimulates the Table 2 Rheological analysis for the water-based mud using the vis- cosifiers appetite. Thickening usually improves the taste of soups, but most important is their nutritional value in foods. In fact, Rheologi- API standard PAC R Achi OFFOR Kian cal properties the nutritional value of soups is determined by the thicken- (RPM) ing agent used. Thickening agents, or thickeners, are sub- stances which, when added to an aqueous mixture, increase 600 74 40 61 68 its viscosity. 300 48 25 39 44 200 36 19 27 32 100 22 12 18 20 Methodology 6 3 2 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 These green materials were processed to powder form and 10 s (lb/100 ft ) 2–8 3 1 1 1 sieved to their finest particle sizes to reduce the amount of PV 12–25 26 15 22 24 solute that would be present in the water-based drilling fluid YP 10–20 22 10 17 20 formed with the materials. QAQC analyses were conducted on these green materials before applying them as possible substitutes for other available viscosifying agents. Stand- the yield point (YP) is a measure of the degree of non-New- tonian shear thinning behavior of the mud system. It can ard viscosifying agent (PAC R) was also used to formulate water-based mud for proper comparison. The properties be deduced from Fig. 2 that these green materials behaved optimally as viscosifiers for the formulated water-based mud of the formulated mud systems were analyzed using API standard. systems under ambient temperature. In addition, the mud system’s behaviour at 150 °F was considered and a reduc- A total of four water-based mud systems were formu- lated for the QAQC analysis and the rheological properties tion in the flow properties were recorded at this increased temperature (Fig. 3). This observation was also recorded by analysis. Both the green materials and PAC R mud systems contained the same amount of additives and were exposed Zhao et al. 2008, Makinde et al. (2011) and Amani and Al- Jubouri (2012) for different viscosifiers used in their stud- to the same temperature and pressure conditions (Table 1). ies. Kian and OFFOR green materials were within the API standard at temperature of 150 °F. Results and discussion Experimental measurements on suitability and compatibility Conclusion of these green materials as water-based mud fluid viscosify - ing agent were conducted with respect to API standard. The In this study, we looked at the suitability of some selected green materials as viscosifiers and the possible effect of QAQC test, which is a bench analysis, showed that these materials acted as thickeners and thus, were further used temperature on the rheological properties of water-based mud formulated with them. The mud system properties of for formulation and mud properties analysis. Their results are presented in Table 2. During formulation, these viscosi- these green materials were compared with PAC R which is fiers were applied at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3 ppb; but 2 ppb showed a positive trend in the mud property. The plastic viscosity (PV) depends mainly on the con- centration of solids and the viscosity of the base liquid and Table 1 The water-based mud systems formulation composition PAC R OFFOR Achi Kian YP PV Water 322 322 322 322 PAC RACHIOFFOR KIAN Soda ash 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 Caustic soda 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 PV YP KCL 25 25 25 25 PAC L 1 1 1 1 Fig. 2 Flow properties of the water based mud for each viscosifiers Barite 77 77 77 77 at 80 °F 1 3 318 Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology (2019) 9:315–318 Chudzikowski RJ (1971) Guar gum and its applications. J Soc Cosmet Chem 22:43–60 Elkatatny S (2017) Real-time prediction of rheological parameters of KCl water-based drilling fluid using artificial neural network. Arab J Sci Eng 42:1655–1665 Ghasemi N, Mirzaee M, Aghayari R, Maddah H (2017) Investigating created properties of nanoparticles based drilling mud. Heat Mass Transf 54(5):1381–1393 YP Ibrahim DS, Sami NA, Balasubramanian N (2017) Effect of barite and gas oil drilling fluid additives on the reservoir rock characteristics. PV J Pet Explor Prod Technol 7(1):281–292 PAC RACHIOFFOR KIAN Katzbauer B (1998) Properties and applications of xanthan gum. Polym Degrad Stab 59(1–3):81–84 PV YP Lopes BM, Lessa VL, Silva BM, La Cerda LG (2015) Xanthan gum: properties, production conditions, quality and economic perspec- tive. J Food Nutr Res 54(3):185–194 Fig. 3 Flow properties of the water based mud for each viscosifier at Luvielmo MM, Borges CD, de Oliveira Toyama D, Vendruscolo 120 °F CT, Scamparini ARP (2016) Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress. Braz J Microbiol 47:102–109 Makinde FA, Adejumo AD, Ako CT, Efeovbokhan VE (2011) Model- mostly used in the industry for water-based mud systems. ling the effects of temperature and aging time on the rheological Furthermore, the temperatures at which these green materi- properties of drilling fluids. Pet Coal 53(3):167–182 als can be affected were determined. From the results of the Mudgil D, Barak S, Khatkar BS (2014) Guar gum: processing, prop- experiment, we can say that Kian (Averrhoa carambola L.) erties and food applications—a review. J Food Sci Technol 51(3):409–418 has the characteristic of being a substitute for PAC R when Narain N, Bora PS, Holschuh HJ, Da MA, Vasconcelos S (2001) Physi- beneficiated for water-based drilling fluids. cal and chemical composition of carambola (Kian) fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) at three stages of maturity. Cienc Technol Aliment Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Crea- 3(3):144–148 tive Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creat iveco Okoro EE, Dosunmu A, Oriji B, Iyuke S (2015) Impact of revers- mmons.or g/licenses/b y/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribu- ible invert emulsion drilling fluid rheology on productivity. tion, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate SPE-178308-MS, Nigerian Annual Technical Conference and credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Exhibition Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Thomas S, Patil DA, Patil AG, Chandra N (2008) Pharmacognostic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Averrhoa carambola L. fruit. J Herb Med Toxicol 2(2):51–54 Uwaezuoke N, Igwilo KC, Onwukwe SI, Obah B (2017) Effects of tem - References perature on Mucuna solannie water-based mud properties. Int J Adv Eng Res Sci (IJAERS). https://doi.or g/10.22161/i jaers.4.1.13 Agwu OE, Akpabio JU (2018) Using agro-waste materials as possible Wajheeuddin M, Hossain ME (2017) Development of an environmen- filter loss control agents in drilling muds: a review. J Pet Sci Eng tally-friendly water-based mud system using natural materials. 163:185–198 Arab J Sci Eng. https ://doi.org/10.1007/s1336 9-017-2583-2 Amani M, Al-Jubouri M (2012) The effect of high pressures and Zhao S-Y, Yan J-N, Shu Y, Zhang H-X (2008) Rheological properties high temperatures on the properties of water based drilling flu- of oil-based drilling fluids at high temperature and high pressure. ids. Energy Sci Technol 4(1):27–33. https ://doi.org/10.3968/j. J Central South Univ Technol 15(Supplement 1):457–461 est.19238 47920 12040 1.256 Atuanya CU, Ibhadode AOA (2011) Characterization of Okhuen Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to (Brachystegia nigerica) wood as a potential reinforcement for jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. polymer composites. Int J Eng Technol IJET-IJENS 11(04):52–59 1 3
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology – Springer Journals
Published: May 31, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera