Comparative analysis of the indices of plant growth and mesostructure of the photosynthetic apparatus was carried out with ten wheat (Triticum L.) species of various origins. Wheat alloploid forms (tetra- and hexaploids with the chromosome numbers of 28 and 42) exceeded the diploid forms (the chromosome number of 14) 2.3–2.4-fold by their absolute growth rate (AGR). As a result, the alloploid species developed a larger assimilation area; this change involved the internal reorganization of leaf phototrophic tissues and an increase in the cumulative internal assimilation area. In addition, the alloploid species manifested a higher correlation between the surface areas of cell and chloroplast membranes caused by a decrease in the cell number per the unit leaf area, a relative increase of the number of composite multifaveolate cells, a considerable expansion (in volume and surface area) of mesophyll cells, and an increase in chloroplast size and numbers. The decreased ratio between the characteristics of the cell membrane and chloroplast envelope presumes that CO2 diffusion via cell and chloroplast membranes in the leaves was better balanced in the alloploid wheat species than in the diploid forms. All wheat species did not notably differ in their plastid–cytoplasm ratio (cell volume corresponding to one chloroplast and cell surface area per one chloroplast) and the ratio of surface area of cells to cell volume. The discriminant analysis revealed the indices of leaf growth and mesophyll structure instrumental in distinguishing between the diploid and alloploid species: leaf area, AGR, and cell size and number. The change in the latter indices optimized the structure of leaf phototrophic tissues in tetraploid and hexaploid species; as a result, the internal assimilation area was expanded and, consequently, leaf CO2 conductance was increased.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 17, 2004
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