ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 406−413. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © O.V. Kozlova, L.S. Tereshchuk, A.V. Myznikov, A.V. Antonenko, N.G. Zubritskaya, A.G. Bazanov,
2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 354−361.
PROCESSES USING VARIOUS
Optimization of Process Parameters
for Preparing a Solid Catalyst for Bisphenol Synthesis
O. V. Kozlova*, L. S. Tereshchuk, A. V. Myznikov, A. V. Antonenko,
N. G. Zubritskaya, and A. G. Bazanov
FSUE RSC “Applied Chemistry,” ul. Krylenko 26А, St. Petersburg, 193232 Russia
Received December 29, 2015
Abstract—The results of optimization of the process parameters for preparing high-performance heterogeneous
catalysts for bisphenol synthesis show that the performance of the solid acid catalyst is determined by its exchange
capacity, acidity, pore structure, and speciﬁ c surface area. Optimum process parameters for preparing highly ac-
tive solid acid catalysts were revealed.
Bisphenols are synthesized in industry mainly by the
reaction of phenol with acetone in the presence of strong
mineral acids (hydrochloric, sulfuric, perchloric) or of
gaseous hydrogen chloride.
The catalyst should be removed from the reaction
mixture by neutralization, which leads to the formation
of a large amount of phenol-containing wastewater and
to deterioration of the product quality. In addition, the
presence of a strong mineral acid in the reaction solution
causes corrosion of the apparatus and requires the use of
expensive corrosion-resistant materials.
The procedure for preparing bisphenols using solid
acid catalysts can be considered as an alternative to
the process using homogeneous catalysts. The use of a
heterogeneous catalyst eliminates the corrosive action
of acids on the metal, which simpliﬁ es the process
implementation. In addition, the product washing to
remove the catalyst is facilitated, and formation of large
amounts of wastewater is excluded. The conditions of
contact of reactants with heterogeneous catalysts favor
the use of automated continuous processes, which
enhances the productive capacity of the apparatus and
reduces the power consumption.
Sulfonic acid cation-exchange resins are used as
solid catalysts most frequently [1, 2]. Phosphoric and
carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins, as well as
anion-exchange resins, are less active. Resins can be
readily regenerated and used repeatedly, which reduces
the catalyst consumption per unit of the target product.
Insoluble strongly acidic cation-exchange resins with
the matrix based on styrene–divinylbenzene (DVB)
copolymer are the most widely used catalyst resins in
acid-catalyzed reactions. Their advantage compared to
resins with other matrix type, e.g., phenol–formaldehyde
and benzene–formaldehyde resins or perﬂ uorinated
polymers, is the possibility of controlling the degree
of cross-linking and thus the porosity and permeability
of the matrix. Such catalysts are chemically stable and
insoluble under the reaction conditions. Today they are
the main heterogeneous catalysts for bisphenol synthesis
Although search for new heterogeneous catalysts
for the synthesis of bisphenols attracts interest of many
researchers [8–10], and signiﬁ cant differences between
the catalysts used, caused by their composition, acidity,
and state of the surface, are being actively discussed
in the literature, an unambiguous dependence of the
yield and quality of bisphenol on the physicochemical
properties of the catalysts still has not been revealed.
The physicochemical characteristics of a catalyst,
such as the degree of dispersity, pore structure, sur-
face acidity, mechanical strength, exchange capacity,