Keywords Pine needle Pyrolysis RSM Bio-oil caused by thick layer of pine needles contribute to signif- Biochar icant air pollution with devastating environmental impacts (Tzamtzis et al. 2006). Therefore, ﬁnding of an alternate use of pine needles is utmost important to reduce risk of Introduction forest ﬁre. Pine needles had been envisaged as biomass for pro- Pine needles are product of regular leaf shedding from fast duction of fuel briquettes and gasiﬁcation (Haykiri-Acma growing Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) which has a forest and Yaman 2007; Font et al. 2009). Initial studies were cover of 7.62 million hectares in North Western Himalaya focused on the thermal behavior of pine needles with aim consisting of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Estimation in hills to ﬁnd out the effects of ﬁre retardants on pyrolysis (Pappa of Uttarakhand, India has shown pine needle productivity et al. 2006; Tzamtzis et al. 2006). Leoni et al. (2003) -1 of 6.3 t ha per year (Singh et al. 2016). Decaying pro- performed Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) cess of pine needles is very slow and they are seldom experiments in air medium on Pinus pinaster pine needles removed from forest bed. Thick layer of
Chemical Papers – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 5, 2017
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