ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 373−382. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Optimization of Environmental Friendly Process
for Removal of Cadmium from Wastewater
Refat F. Aglan and Mostafa M. Hamed
Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center,
Atomic Energy Authority, PO.13759, Abu-Zaabal, Cairo, Egypt
Received February 2, 2014
Abstract—Simple, efﬁ cient and eco-friendly electrochemical method for removal and recovery of Cd(II) from
wastewater has been studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor with iron electrodes.
The removal was examined at different pH values and electrical potentials. It was observed that the experiments
carried out at 20 V and at pH 9 were sufﬁ cient for the maximum removal of Cd(II). This method is highly efﬁ cient
in removal of Cd(II) from wastewater containing up to 1000 mg L
. The removal is faster in comparison with
the adsorption on activated carbon, which is one of the most important requirements for practical application of
this treatment method. In this process, the use of different electrical potentials can provide a wide range of pH
values for performing this process. The removal data were used to determine the adsorption kinetics by using
the ﬁ rst-order adsorption kinetics model. The data can be analyzed in terms of various adsorption models. The
results of Cd(II) removal from real samples indicate that the method used in this study can provide an efﬁ cient
and cost-effective technology for the treatment of Cd(II)-containing wastewater. The parameters can be used for
designing a plant for an economical treatment of Cd(II)-rich water and wastewater.
The world has entered into a new era in which sus-
tainability is the main way to encounter the challenges
of depletion of our reserves and environmental upsets.
Wastewater is not only one of the main causes of irrevers-
ible damages to the environmental balances, but it also
contributes to the depletion of fresh water reserves of
this planet and generates threats to the next generation.
A lot of industrial processes are conducted at the expense
of a plentiful of fresh water, which is discharged as a
wastewater and needs to be treated properly to reduce
or eradicate the pollutants and achieve the purity level
for its recycling into the industrial process to promote
There are many polluting substances that disrupt or
change the chemical makeup of the world’s water and
affect the aquatic environment. Some basic pollutants
include radioactive materials, sediments, inorganic
chemicals, oil spills, synthetic organic compounds, and
toxic metals. Metals are introduced into aquatic system
as a result of weathering of soil and rocks, from volcanic
eruptions, and from a variety of human activities. The
continuous discharge of industrial, domestic and agricul-
tural wastes into waters causes deposit of pollutants in
sediments. Such pollutants include heavy metals, which
endanger the public health after being incorporated in the
food chain. Heavy metals cannot be destroyed through
biological degradation, in contrast to most of organic
pollutants. The accumulation of heavy metals in ﬁ sh,
oysters, mussels, sediments, and other components of
aquatic ecosystems have been reported from all over the
world [1, 2].
The conventional methods for removal of heavy
metals from wastewater include chemical precipitation,
membrane separation, ion exchange adsorption, and
biosorption. However, many of these are expensive or
* The text was submitted by authors in English.