Linearly independent pure quantum states can be discriminated unambiguously, while linearly dependent states cannot. We use a physical accessible unitary transformation to map the nonorthogonal quantum states onto a set of orthogonal ones so that measuring the output states can discriminate the initial states with the deterministic and inconclusive results. The failure states that give an inconclusive result are linearly dependent ones. In finding the optimal unambiguous discrimination (UD), we show that a main constraint condition that the determinant constructed by the complex inner products of the failure states must be zero, along with two additional conditions, can provide solutions to the problem of the optimal UD for pure qudits. For any d, we give one analytical solution as all the Berry phases being zero. We also derive the lowest bound of the total failure probability of the optimal UD.
Quantum Information Processing – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 7, 2013
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