ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 121–129. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2015.
Original Russian Text © I.A. Vladimirov, T.V. Matveeva, L.A. Lutova, 2015, published in Genetika, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 137–146.
is a genus of soil bacteria of the fam
ily Rhizobiaceae. The most famous feature of agro
bacteria is their ability to transfer genetic information
(TDNA) into plant cells and to integrate it sustain
ably in the plant genome. Genetic expression of T
DNA leads to a proliferation of transformed cells and
the formation of root, root galls, or hairy roots, which
synthesize opines digestible by
genic agrobacteria are traditionally divided into three
, which are also known as
types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There is substantial
complexity with the systematics (the three allocated
species do not fully comply with the biotypes) . In
this review we used the traditional division into
. All three
species, upon infecting plants and transforming them
with their TDNA, induce a proliferation of trans
formed host cells, causing the formation of tumors of
formation of crown galls—tumors of various degrees
of differentiation, which are usually located on the
roots of the plants on the root crown or in the lower
part of the stem. Similar tumors induced by
induce the formation of socalled
“bearded root” mass of fast growing, highly branched
ageotrophic roots [2–4].
A lot of plants are affected by agrobacterial dis
eases. Different strains vary by their target hosts;
pathogenic Agrobacterium can cause diseases in more
than 1000 species of dicotyledonous plants of 61 dif
ferent families, and transformation of monocots is also
possible. A key factor in
tions are opines, and this review is dedicated to the
genetic control of opine synthesis and degradation.
GENES OF OPINE BIOSYNTHESIS.
OPINE ROLE IN
AND PLANT INTERACTIONS.
Opines are specific compounds, the products of
condensed amino acids with ketoacids or sugars.
Carboxyl acyl amino acids are classic opines.
Opines also include a number of other compounds
that perform functions similar to classic opines .
Carboxyl acyl amino acids are formed by reductive
condensation of amino acid and ketoacid; a reaction
occurs between the amino group of an amino acid and
a ketone group of the ketoacid (Fig. 1).
The first evidence of the existence of opines was
obtained in the 1950s as the result of an investigation
into arginine metabolism in tumors induced by
. The following observations played a
key role in understanding the role of opines and the
nature of tumor formation .
can metabolize opines.
metabolize only opines that are
synthetized in the tumor and induced by a particular
(3) The set of opines produced by a tumor depends
on the strain of
, not on the host plant.
The second and third observations, along with the
surprising ability of tumors to continue growth after
the destruction of the
were the basis for the assumption about horizontal
gene transfer from
to the plant ,
Opine Biosynthesis and Catabolism Genes
I. A. Vladimirov, T. V. Matveeva, and L. A. Lutova
Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, SaintPetersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 199034 Russia
Received June 16, 2014
—Agrobacterium is a genus of soil bacteria with the ability to transform plant cells by a TDNA
sequence located on the pTi/pRiplasmid containing a set of genes expressed in plant cells. Expression of
these genes leads to a proliferation of transformed cells, with the subsequent formation of tumors or growths
of roots and the synthesis of opines—products of the condensation of amino acids with ketoacids or sugars
used by agrobacteria as a source of carbon and nitrogen. In this review, we systematized the information about
most common opines in plant–
systems and their biosynthesis and catabolism genes, as well as
the role of opines in the interaction of pathogenic
with plants and with other
strains, including the genetic consequences of such interactions.
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