On the variety of coastal El Niño events

On the variety of coastal El Niño events We examine the connection between interannual anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) in the central and far-eastern equatorial Pacific associated with basin-scale and coastal El Niños. Variations of the SST anomalies in these two regions are largely coherent, meaning coastal El Niños mostly occur together with the commonly studied basin-scale El Niños. Of particular interest for this study though is the understanding of the coastal El Niños that are not accompanied by basin-scale El Niños or that follow basin-scale El Niños. Such coastal El Niños can have catastrophic societal consequences in western South America. We identify seven coastal El Niños during 1979–2017, namely 1983, 1987, 1998, 2008, 2014, 2015, and 2017. These coastal El Niños are driven by different mechanisms. The coastal El Niños in 1983, 1987 and 1998 occurred after basin-scale El Niños. A unique feature of such extreme basin-scale El Niños like in 1982–1983, 1986–1987, and 1997–1998 is an equatorially centered intertropical convergence zone during its decaying phase. As a result, positive SST anomalies persist, and sometimes even strengthen, in the eastern Pacific in the subsequent boreal spring/early-summer, leading to coastal El Niños. The coastal El Niños in 2014 and 2015 on the other hand resulted from http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Climate Dynamics Springer Journals

On the variety of coastal El Niño events

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Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection
Subject
Earth Sciences; Geophysics/Geodesy; Climatology; Oceanography
ISSN
0930-7575
eISSN
1432-0894
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00382-018-4290-4
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

We examine the connection between interannual anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) in the central and far-eastern equatorial Pacific associated with basin-scale and coastal El Niños. Variations of the SST anomalies in these two regions are largely coherent, meaning coastal El Niños mostly occur together with the commonly studied basin-scale El Niños. Of particular interest for this study though is the understanding of the coastal El Niños that are not accompanied by basin-scale El Niños or that follow basin-scale El Niños. Such coastal El Niños can have catastrophic societal consequences in western South America. We identify seven coastal El Niños during 1979–2017, namely 1983, 1987, 1998, 2008, 2014, 2015, and 2017. These coastal El Niños are driven by different mechanisms. The coastal El Niños in 1983, 1987 and 1998 occurred after basin-scale El Niños. A unique feature of such extreme basin-scale El Niños like in 1982–1983, 1986–1987, and 1997–1998 is an equatorially centered intertropical convergence zone during its decaying phase. As a result, positive SST anomalies persist, and sometimes even strengthen, in the eastern Pacific in the subsequent boreal spring/early-summer, leading to coastal El Niños. The coastal El Niños in 2014 and 2015 on the other hand resulted from

Journal

Climate DynamicsSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 6, 2018

References

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