Physical Oceanography, Vol.
6, March, 2012 (Ukrainian Original No.
6, November–December, 2011)
ANALYSIS OF OBSERVATIONS AND METHODS FOR CALCULATING
HYDROPHYSICAL FIELDS IN THE OCEAN
ON THE CAUSES OF DECREASE IN THE SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF WATER
IN THE KARKINITSKII BAY OF THE BLACK SEA
É. N. Mikhailova,
A. B. Polonsky,
and M. A. Muzyleva
We consider the causes of decrease in the surface temperature of water in the northwest part of the Black
Sea on the basis of the analysis of satellite data and the results of numerical simulations. We use the sat-
ellite data (NOAA-15/17) with a resolution of 1
km obtained for May–October 2005–2008, the data of
reanalysis, and a three-dimensional numerical model. By using the data of observations, we discover a
zone of lowered surface temperature in the Karkinitskii Bay propagating in the presence of stable north-
west wind. To determine the causes of decrease in the sea-surface temperature in the Karkinitskii Bay,
we carried out a special numerical experiment. The analysis of the balance of terms in the heat-transfer
equation for the upper mixed layer shows that the variations of temperature of the upper layer of the sea
in the north part of the Karkinitskii Bay under the action of northwest wind are indeed governed by the
vertical ascending motions of waters (i.e., by upwelling) but the appearance of cold waters in the south
part of the bay for the same wind is caused by the horizontal advection.
Keywords: upwelling, northwest part of the Black Sea, Karkinitskii Bay.
It is well known that, under certain hydrometeorological conditions, the sea-surface temperature may de-
crease in the northwest part of the Black Sea and near the coast of Crimea in the warm period of the year. It is
generally accepted that the main cause of this phenomenon is upwelling which can be wind-induced, Ekman-
type, or mixed depending on the depth of the coastal regions of the sea [1, 2]. The classification of the zones
with lowered sea-surface temperature in the north part of the Black Sea was realized in . In Fig. 1, on the ba-
sis of the analysis of the satellite data, we detect seven zones characterized by certain specific features of the
space-and-time variations of sea-surface temperature. In most cases, the events of decrease in temperature (in-
terpreted, as a rule, as manifestations of upwelling) are observed in each of these zones independently of the
other zones under certain wind conditions. The numbers presented inside each zone correspond to the numbers
of upwellings recorded in these zones. For the analyzed period, the maximum number of upwellings was re-
corded in zone B (14 cases) and the least number was observed in zones F and G (four cases in each zone).
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Ukraine.
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Ukraine; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sevastopol Branch, Sevastopol, Ukraine; e-mail: email@example.com.
Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal, No.
28–35, November–December, 2011. Original article submitted September
2, 2010; revision submitted November 29, 2010.
394 0928–5105/12/2106–0394 © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.