ISSN 1068-3712, Russian Electrical Engineering, 2017, Vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 783–787. © Allerton Press, Inc., 2017.
Original Russian Text © A.P. Sen’kov, A.N. Kalmykov, A.A. Sen’kov, P.V. Makin, 2017, published in Elektrotekhnika, 2017, No. 12, pp. 13–18.
On Advanced Versions of Wave-Power Plants
A. P. Sen’kov
*, A. N. Kalmykov
, A. A. Sen’kov
, and P. V. Makin
St. Petersburg State Maritime Technical University, St. Petersburg, 190121 Russia
Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering, St. Petersburg, 191119 Russia
Krylov State Research Center, St. Petersburg, 196158 Russia
Received November 14, 2017
Abstract—The modern electric-power industry, which is based on thermal-power plants, is causing difficult
environmental problems on a planetary scale. Leading industrialized countries are developing power industry
based on renewable energy sources (RESs) using the energy of the Sun, rivers, oceans, wind, and geothermal
energy of the Earth. The energy density of sea waves is much higher than that of solar radiation and wind.
However, solar- and wind-power plants have gained more widespread use than have wave ones. The reason
for this is the absence of a cheap and effective way of converting the sea-wave energy into electricity. Existing
wave-power plants are inferior to other types of power plants using renewable sources of energy in mass and
size and, therefore, in the cost of electricity. The paper considers a layout allowing for a significant reduction
in the mass and dimensions of a wave-power plant. The wave-power plant is housed in the hull of a moored
twin-hull ship. By means of cables and a vertical pendulum, the energy of waves is converted first into
mechanical shaft-rotation energy and then into the electrical energy. The use of a tackle pulley allows increas-
ing the generator rotor speed to hundreds of rpm and reducing the pendulum mass. All the electrical equip-
ment of the power plant is arranged inside the twin-hull ship. Results of use of the wave-power-plant model
in a wave-simulator tank are presented.
Keywords: wave-power plant, twin-hull ship, vertical pendulum, permanent-magnet generator
Society’s demands for electric energy have con-
stantly increased for many decades and will increase in
the foreseeable future. At the same time, most of the
electricity in the global electric-power industry is gen-
erated by thermal power plants (TPPs), that burn fossil
fuels—oil, coal, and gas. In Russia, in 2015, about 66%
of 1068 billion kW h of electricity were produced at
TPPs . Fuel combustion products poison the atmo-
sphere, soil and water, affecting the Earth’s climate.
Nuclear-power plants (NPPs), which produced more
than 18% of the electricity in Russia in 2015, leave
radioactive waste for generations to come. Accidents at
NPPs lead to disasters, the consequences of which can
last for centuries.
A natural way out of this situation is the use of
renewable energy sources (RESs), such as solar
energy; the energy of rivers, seas, oceans, and wind;
and geothermal energy for electricity production. The
countries of the European Union have adopted a pro-
gram to achieve a share of renewable energy in their
energy balance of 20% by 2020 and of 40% by 2040 .
The use of renewable energy is also rapidly developing
in other industrialized countries, such as the United
States of America, Japan, Australia, Canada, and
Russia does not devote much attention to the
development of renewable energy, since the reserves of
fossil fuels on the territory of Russia are enormous and
the Russian economy has a fuel-energy bias. However,
the development of renewable energy is inevitable in
Russia in the long term.
The energy of rivers, among other renewable
energy sources, is used intensely. Hydroelectric-power
stations, which accounted for about 16% of cheap
power generation in Russia in 2015, do not cause great
damage to the environment, but their operation leads
to the flooding of large areas, local climate change,
and disruption of the life cycle of organisms in rivers.
In addition, water-energy resources in many regions of
the world regions are limited or already exhausted.
Among other types of RESs, the most promising in
terms of power generation are solar radiation and
energy of wind and sea waves and currents. Many
wind-power plants (WPPs) have been built, and solar-
and wave-power plants (wave PPs) are in operation.
The cost of electricity generated by RES-based power
plants is still much higher than that generated by
TPPs. However RES-based power plants are becom-
ing more and more advanced year after year and the
cost of their generation is declining.