The occurrence and health risks of organotins (OTs) in the waterworks and source water in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), China were assessed in this study. Water samples were collected at four waterworks (A, B, C, and D) in March and July 2012 to analyze butyltins (BTs) and phenyltins (PTs) using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. Our results showed that both the waterworks and their nearby water sources were polluted by OTs, with PTs being the most dominant species. Monobutyltin (MBT), monophenyltin (MPT), diphenyltin (DPT), and triphenyltin (TPT) were detected in most of the analyzed water samples. The highest concentrations of OTs in influents, effluents, and source water in March were 52.81, 17.93, and 55.32 ng Sn L−1, respectively. Furthermore, significant seasonal changes in OTs pollution were observed in all samples, showing pollution worse in spring compared with summer. The removal of OTs by the conventional treatment processes was not stable among the waterworks. The removal efficiency of OTs in July reached 100% at plant B, while that at plant C was only 38.8%. The source water and influents shared similar composition profiles, concentrations, and seasonal change of OTs, which indicated that OTs in the waterworks were derived from the source water. A health risk assessment indicated that the presence of OTs in the waterworks would not pose a significant health risk to the population, yet their presence should not be ignored.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 18, 2018
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