Physical Oceanography, Vol.
EXPERIMENTAL AND FIELD RESEARCH
OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUBMARINE DISCHARGE OF UNDERGROUND WATERS
(SOUTH COAST OF THE CRIMEA)
S. I. Kondrat’ev,
A. V. Prusov,
and Yu. G. Yurovskii
We analyze the results of the field hydrological and hydrochemical observations of the submarine dis-
charge of underground waters near the cape Aiya (South Coast of the Crimea) obtained with the help of
the measuring equipment developed at the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the Ukrainian National
Academy of Sciences. We measure the current velocities, temperature, salinity, and the contents of sil-
icic acid and phosphates inside a karst cavity and in the test region around the cavity. We present three
estimates of the output of submarine discharge and compute the amounts of silicic acid and phosphates
carried out into the sea by the submarine source.
The submarine discharge of underground waters from karst cavities is a fairly complicated hydrophysical
process. It can be schematically represented as the motion of flows with different densities: a fresh-water flow
(underground waters), a partially freshened flow (a mixture of fresh water and seawater), and a flow of seawater.
This motion is affected by numerous external factors, such as waves (wind, baric, and standing waves, swell),
surge and tidal phenomena, longshore currents, etc. Hence, the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical conditions
change both inside a karst cavity characterized by the presence of submarine discharge of underground waters
and in the water area surrounding the cavity. Indeed, we observe the variations of the vertical and horizontal
distributions of flow velocities, the thicknesses of the moving layers, and the hydrological and hydrochemical
fields. The analysis of these processes is of a great scientific and practical interest. In the present work, we
study some aspects of this problem and the general situation formed directly in the source of submarine dis-
charge, i.e., in the karst cavity.
In September 2007, the researchers of the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the Ukrainian National Academy
of Sciences carried out complex observations of the submarine discharge of underground waters in the region near
Cape Aiya (Crimea), including the program of measurements of current velocities, temperature, salinity, and the
contents of silicic acid and phosphates. The measurements were performed in the region of a karst cavity at a dis-
tance of 100
m from Cape Peleketo and inside the cavity. In Fig.
1, we present a schematic map of the region of
works and indicate the locations of hydrological stations made outside the cavity.
The data obtained as a result of hydrological and hydrochemical surveys carried out in the test range near
the cavity (stations 14–36) and flexible towing of CTD-probes along the coastline (at a distance of 5
m from the
coast) at a depth of ~
enable one to rapidly detect the presence of submarine discharge [1, 2].
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Ukraine.
Corresponding author; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Corresponding author; e-mail: email@example.com.
Ukrainian State Geological-Prospecting Institute, Crimean Division, Simferopol, Ukraine.
Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal, No.
32–45, January–February, 2010. Original article submitted October 8,
2008; revision submitted October 20, 2008.
28 0928–5105/10/2001–0028 © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.