Plants need nutrient to grow and plant cells need nutrient to divide. The meristems are the factories and cells that are left behind will expand and differentiate. However, meristems are not simple homogenous entities; cells in different parts of the meristem do different things. Positional cues operate that can fate cells into different tissue domains. However, founder/stem cells persist in specific locations within the meristem e.g. the quiescent centre of root apical meristem (RAM) and the lower half of the central zone of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Given the complexity of meristems, do their cells simply respond to a diffusing gradient of photosynthate? This in turn begs the question, why do stem cell populations tend to have longer cell cycles than their immediate descendants given that like all other cells they are directly in the path of diffusing nutrient? In this review, we have examined the extent to which nutrient sensing might be operating in meristems. The scene is set for sugar sensing, the plant cell cycle, SAMs and RAMs. Special emphasis is given to the metabolic regulator, SnRK1 (SNF1-related protein kinase 1), hexokinase and the trehalose pathway in relation to sugar sensing. The unique plant cell cycle gene, cylin-dependent kinase B1;1 may have evolved to be particularly responsive to sugar signalling pathways. Also, the homeobox gene, STIMPY, emerges strongly as a link between sugar sensing, plant cell proliferation and development. Flowering can be influenced by sucrose and glucose levels and both meristem identity and organ identity genes could well be differentially sensitive to sucrose and glucose signals. We also describe how meristems deal with extra photosynthate as a result of exposure to elevated CO2. What we review are numerous instances of how developmental processes can be affected by sugars/nutrients. However, given the scarcity of knowledge we are unable to provide uncontested links between nutrient sensing and specific activities in meristems.
Plant Molecular Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 8, 2005
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