As a Lagrangian meshless method, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is robust in modelling multi-fluid flows with interface fragmentations. However, the application for the simulation of a rising bubble bursting at a fluid surface is rarely documented. In this paper, the multiphase SPH model is extended and applied to simulate this challenging phenomenon. Different numerical techniques developed in different SPH models are combined in the present SPH model. The adoption of a background pressure determined based on the surface tension can help to avoid tensile instability and interface penetrations. An accurate surface tension model is employed. This model is suitable for bubble rising problems of small scales and high density ratios. An interface sharpness force is adopted to achieve a smoother bubble surface. A suitable formula of viscous force, which is proven to be able to accurately capture the bubble splitting and small bubble detachment, is employed. Moreover, a modified prediction-correction time-stepping scheme for a better numerical stability and allows a relatively larger CFL factor is adopted. It is also worthwhile to mention that the particle shifting technique, which helps to make the particle distribute in an arrangement of lower disorder, can significantly improve the numerical accuracy. Regarding the treatment of the fluid surface, particles of lighter phase are arranged above the free surface of the denser phase to avoid the kernel truncation in the density approximation. Furthermore, this technique also allows an accurate calculation of the surface tension on the fluid surface. A number of cases of bubbly flows are presented, which confirms the capability of the present multiphase SPH model in modelling complex bubble-surface interactions with the density ratio and viscosity ratio up to 1000 and 100 respectively.
Meccanica – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 7, 2017
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