The karyotypes and chromosome polymorphism in Rineloricaria lima have been examined using both conventional (Giemsa-staining, C-banding and silver impregnation) and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGGG)n probes protocols. A variation in chromosome number of 2n = 70–66 was detected in the analyzed populations, with the fundamental number (FN) ranging from 72 to 74. The 2n = 70 chromosomes and karyotypic formula 2st + 68a (NF = 72) was establish the start point of the current polymorphism. Based on this karyotype, seven fusioned and/or inverted chromosomes types (without vestiges of interstitial telomeric sites—ITS; with ITS and; carrying 5S rDNA fusion points) were described and eight karyotypes were established. It was hypothesized that one Rineloricaria branch, originally having a diploid number of 2n = 54 which appears the ancestral 2n for Loricariidae, diversified through centric fissions generating unstable sites at the break points. These unstable sites may have triggered Robertsonian fusions generating the currently observed polymorphism of 70–66 chromosomes. The formation of the chromosomes variants could have possibly led to the formation of different gametic combinations (balanced and unbalanced), which may have generated alterations in the FN above 72. These results demonstrate an important case that ITS and 5S rDNA were observed in fused chromosomes, implying that rDNA could serve as breakpoint for the fusion in Rinelocaria. Thus, all these mechanisms promote an increase in variability and assist in the maintenance of the observed polymorphism.
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 23, 2011
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