# Nucleation of Bubbles by Electrons in Liquid Helium-4

Nucleation of Bubbles by Electrons in Liquid Helium-4 We report on experiments in which we study cavitation resulting from electrons in liquid helium. Electrons are introduced into the liquid by a radioactive source. After an electron comes to rest in the liquid, it forces open a small cavity referred to as an electron bubble. To study cavitation, a sound pulse is generated by means of a hemispherical piezoelectric transducer producing a large-amplitude pressure oscillation at the acoustic focus. If an electron is in the vicinity of the focus and the negative-going pressure swing exceeds a critical value, a cavitation bubble is produced which can be detected by light scattering. Two distinct critical pressures $$P_{\text{el}}$$ P el and $$P_{\text{rare}}$$ P rare have been measured. The first corresponds to cavitation resulting from the application of a reduced pressure to liquid containing an electron which has already formed an electron bubble. The second is the critical pressure needed to lead to cavitation when an electron enters the liquid at a time and place where there is already a reduced pressure. We have measured these two pressures as a function of temperature and consider possible explanations for the difference between them. In addition to these clearly seen cavitation thresholds, there are some cavitation events that have been detected with a threshold that is at an even smaller negative pressure than $$P_{\text{el}}$$ P el and $$P_{\text{rare}}$$ P rare . http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Low Temperature Physics Springer Journals

# Nucleation of Bubbles by Electrons in Liquid Helium-4

, Volume 192 (2) – Feb 22, 2018
17 pages

/lp/springer_journal/nucleation-of-bubbles-by-electrons-in-liquid-helium-4-6jauJRC1OP
Publisher
Springer Journals
Subject
Physics; Condensed Matter Physics; Characterization and Evaluation of Materials; Magnetism, Magnetic Materials
ISSN
0022-2291
eISSN
1573-7357
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10909-018-1879-2
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

### Abstract

We report on experiments in which we study cavitation resulting from electrons in liquid helium. Electrons are introduced into the liquid by a radioactive source. After an electron comes to rest in the liquid, it forces open a small cavity referred to as an electron bubble. To study cavitation, a sound pulse is generated by means of a hemispherical piezoelectric transducer producing a large-amplitude pressure oscillation at the acoustic focus. If an electron is in the vicinity of the focus and the negative-going pressure swing exceeds a critical value, a cavitation bubble is produced which can be detected by light scattering. Two distinct critical pressures $$P_{\text{el}}$$ P el and $$P_{\text{rare}}$$ P rare have been measured. The first corresponds to cavitation resulting from the application of a reduced pressure to liquid containing an electron which has already formed an electron bubble. The second is the critical pressure needed to lead to cavitation when an electron enters the liquid at a time and place where there is already a reduced pressure. We have measured these two pressures as a function of temperature and consider possible explanations for the difference between them. In addition to these clearly seen cavitation thresholds, there are some cavitation events that have been detected with a threshold that is at an even smaller negative pressure than $$P_{\text{el}}$$ P el and $$P_{\text{rare}}$$ P rare .

### Journal

Journal of Low Temperature PhysicsSpringer Journals

Published: Feb 22, 2018

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