The aim of this study was the development of low-cost tannin-formaldehyde xerogel/TiO2 (XTi-w) and carbon xerogel/TiO2 (XTiC-w) photocatalysts. The materials used as precursors were recycled titanium scraps and black wattle tannin extract, highlighting the low-cost approach employed in the synthesis. The materials were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dispersive energy spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. X-ray diffractometry showed that the XTiC-w have tetragonal crystalline structure (anatase), whereas the XTi-w has an amorphous structure. The Raman and infrared analysis also showed the presence of titanium dioxide in the composition of both XTi-w and XTiC-w. XTi-w and XTiC-w showed photocatalytic activity at the visible wavelength. Titanium dioxide displayed no photocatalytic activity at the visible wavelength. The XTi-60 composite displayed the highest efficiency in the removal of the methylene blue from the system, as well as good reusability properties. The radicals with higher influence in the photocatalytic reaction mechanism are the photo generated electron and the singlet oxygen molecule. The effect of the heat treatment is negative on the photocatalytic properties of the hybrids produced, due to the removal of acid sites, adsorbed water and OH surface groups.
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology – Springer Journals
Published: May 31, 2018
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