Novel solvent-controlled chemoselective palladium/copper(II) halide catalyzed oligomerization of tert-butyl acetylene

Novel solvent-controlled chemoselective palladium/copper(II) halide catalyzed oligomerization of... Solvent-controlled chemoselective palladium-catalyzed oligomerization of tert-butyl acetylene is reported in this paper. The reaction was carried out smoothly in benzene/n-BuOH binary solvent system. When unpolar aprotic benzene was the preponderating component in the binary system, a cyclotrimerization process occurred to produce 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene via a mechanism of three acetylene molecules, inserted step by step, forming σ-butadienyl-Pd and σ-hexatrienyl-Pd intermediates. While when the polar, protic and strong coordinating component n-BuOH, which aids Cu(II) to cleave the C-Pd σ-bonds and solvate Pd(II), Cu(II) cations, halo anion, σ-butadienyl-Pd intermediate, etc., was increased to a certain extent in the binary solvent system, the reaction proceeded readily via a n-BuOH-promoted mechanism to give (3Z,5Z)-2,2,7,7-tetramethyl-3,6-dichloro-3,5-octadiene or (3Z,5Z)-2,2,7,7-tetramethyl-3,6-dibromo-3,5-octadiene, respectively. Possible weak hydrogen bonds and n-π weak force between n-BuOH (electron pair donor (EPD)) and tert-butyl acetylene (and σ-butadienyl-Pd intermediate, electron pair acceptor (EPA)) in the latter process were also in favor of the n-BuOH promoted pathway. Meanwhile, the coupling product 2,2,7,7-tetramethyl-3,5-octadiyne was exclusively obtained when the reaction was conducted in singular polar H2O. Influences of the solvent, catalysts, as well as possible mechanism were discussed in this paper. Research on Chemical Intermediates Springer Journals

Novel solvent-controlled chemoselective palladium/copper(II) halide catalyzed oligomerization of tert-butyl acetylene

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Brill Academic Publishers
Copyright © 2007 by VSP
Chemistry; Catalysis; Physical Chemistry; Inorganic Chemistry
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