Solvent-controlled chemoselective palladium-catalyzed oligomerization of tert-butyl acetylene is reported in this paper. The reaction was carried out smoothly in benzene/n-BuOH binary solvent system. When unpolar aprotic benzene was the preponderating component in the binary system, a cyclotrimerization process occurred to produce 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene via a mechanism of three acetylene molecules, inserted step by step, forming σ-butadienyl-Pd and σ-hexatrienyl-Pd intermediates. While when the polar, protic and strong coordinating component n-BuOH, which aids Cu(II) to cleave the C-Pd σ-bonds and solvate Pd(II), Cu(II) cations, halo anion, σ-butadienyl-Pd intermediate, etc., was increased to a certain extent in the binary solvent system, the reaction proceeded readily via a n-BuOH-promoted mechanism to give (3Z,5Z)-2,2,7,7-tetramethyl-3,6-dichloro-3,5-octadiene or (3Z,5Z)-2,2,7,7-tetramethyl-3,6-dibromo-3,5-octadiene, respectively. Possible weak hydrogen bonds and n-π weak force between n-BuOH (electron pair donor (EPD)) and tert-butyl acetylene (and σ-butadienyl-Pd intermediate, electron pair acceptor (EPA)) in the latter process were also in favor of the n-BuOH promoted pathway. Meanwhile, the coupling product 2,2,7,7-tetramethyl-3,5-octadiyne was exclusively obtained when the reaction was conducted in singular polar H2O. Influences of the solvent, catalysts, as well as possible mechanism were discussed in this paper.
Research on Chemical Intermediates – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 1, 2007
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera