Composite axially symmetric immersion ion lenses are considered that consist of an electrostatic and a magnetic lens. For the first time, their performance is evaluated over the entire range of operating conditions: from the case of a zero magnetic field to the case of a zero ion energy on the target. Operating conditions are characterized in terms of τ = W t/W 0, where W 0 is the energy of an ion at the boundary of the region in which the trajectories are parallel to the axis and W t is that on the target. For the first time, simple analytical approximations are derived for C c/r, C s/r, f/r, and NI, where C c is the chromatic-aberration coefficient, C s is the third-order spherical-aberration coefficient, f is the focal distance, NI is the magnetomotive force of the coil, and r is the outer radius of the coil. The behavior of the four quantities is explored as a function of τ. The following conclusions are drawn: (i) The aberrations are maximum for a zero magnetic field. (ii) The aberration coefficients decrease monotonically with increasing NIand decreasing τ, the lens changing from an accelerating to a decelerating one. (iii) If τ → , then C s/r – τ1/4, C c/r – τ1/6, f/r– τ1/3, and NI – τ–1/2. (iv) The lenses are suitable for resistless heavy-ion projection lithography and can provide 20 × 1011 pixels of area 2 × 2 nm2 for an exposed area of 3 × 3 mm2. (v) Used in heavy-ion microprobe systems, the lenses could enable resistless lithography over much larger areas than existing equipment.
Russian Microelectronics – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 11, 2004
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