We describe an outbreak of gastroenteritis in which the nucleic acid of three distinct noroviruses was amplified from the same fecal sample. To enable the separate amplification of each virus, an inclusion/exclusion RT-PCR primer design strategy was developed. This paired a virus-specific exclusion primer (designed with the exact sequence of one virus in a region displaying low conservation among the three viruses) with a virus-nonspecific inclusion primer (designed in a conserved region). Thus, in each reaction the exclusion primer provided specificity for a single virus, and the inclusion primer increased the sensitivity and allowed hybridization in a region of unknown sequence. Analysis of the partial genomic sequences of the three viruses (3.6–3.8 kb) indicated that each virus belonged to a separate genogroup II cluster, and each displayed evidence of a potential recombination event when the sequences were compared with other published norovirus sequences. Our results, which show a mixed norovirus infection in a single individual, confirm the need to be aware of the possibility of mixed norovirus infections, and of the possibility of genomic recombination causing anomalies in phylogenetic analyses in such instances.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2007
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera