Main laws of probability theory, when applied to individual sequences, have a “robustness” property under small violations of randomness. For example, the law of large numbers for the symmetric Bernoulli scheme holds for a sequence where the randomness deficiency of its initial fragment of length n grows as o(n). The law of iterated logarithm holds if the randomness deficiency grows as o(log log n). We prove that Birkhoff's individual ergodic theorem is nonrobust in this sense. If the randomness deficiency grows arbitrarily slowly on initial fragments of an infinite sequence, this theorem can be violated. An analogous nonrobustness property holds for the Shannon–McMillan–Breiman theorem.
Problems of Information Transmission – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 7, 2004
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