1063-7397/04/3306- © 2004 MAIK “Nauka /Interperiodica”
Russian Microelectronics, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2004, pp. 329–341. Translated from Mikroelektronika, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2004, pp. 403–418.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2004 by Bitukov, Petrov.
Although heat transfer in solids mostly occurs by
conduction, there are substances in which radiative
transfer is at least equally important if the temperature
is high enough. They are called semitransparent (or par-
tially transparent) substances, because their linear
absorption coefﬁcient is small in speciﬁc spectral
regions, allowing radiation to travel a long distance.
Semitransparent substances include almost all dielec-
trics and semiconductors: oxides, ﬂuorides, chlorides,
selenides, tellurides, germanium, silicon, gallium ars-
enide, indium antimonide, and most organic sub-
stances. In microelectronics, they are used in structural
states as diverse as single crystals, polycrystals, glasses,
ceramics, plastics, composite materials, and lacquer
Present-day vacuum and solid-state electronic
devices use glass as the major monolithic dielectric
material. Owing to its excellent plasticity under heat-
ing, glass is useful for making packages varying in
shape and size. Its single most important application is
cathode-ray tubes. Glass is also used in optoelectronics,
due to its transparency over a wide spectral range.
Thick-ﬁlm hybrid circuits employ semitransparent
ceramic substrates made of alumina, beryllia, or other
oxides. To improve surface quality, the substrates are
generally glazed with glass thin ﬁlms based on low-
melting oxides; the glazing usually entails heating the
frit to over 1200 K. Also useful are enameled steel sub-
strates, the enamel being a mixture of low-melting
oxides. Dielectric substrates are provided with a coat-
ing, which may be made of a semitransparent material
such as glass ceramic or vitreous enamel. The process
includes high-temperature treatment.
Thin-ﬁlm hybrid circuits are fabricated by similar
technologies except that the substrates are mostly made
of quartz glass or devitriﬁed glass.
Many integrated circuits (ICs) are produced on sin-
gle-crystal silicon substrates. The dielectric employed
is devitriﬁed glass, sapphire (alumina single crystals),
or spinel (
single crystals). These are semi-
transparent materials obtained by high-temperature
processes that involve both radiative and conductive
IC packages are made of plastics or alumina ceram-
ics; the latter material is employed when high reliability
under severe conditions is required. Such packages are
often fabricated at over 1800 K.
Thus, the semitransparent materials concerned are
processed at temperatures that are so high as to make
radiative heat transfer an important consideration in
measuring surface temperature and internal tempera-
ture ﬁelds during thermal processing.
Semitransparent materials have many other uses in
electronic equipment. In checking its thermal state,
account must be taken of the optical and thermal-emis-
sion properties of the semitransparent materials.
On the other hand, the structures of circuits and sys-
tems and the technologies used to fabricate them are so
complex and diverse that it is hardly possible to con-
struct relevant models of mass and heat transfer that
would be both complete and tractable. Thermal-state
checks must therefore involve temperature measure-
ments. However, contact methods such as those using a
set of thermocouples are unsuitable for measuring local
temperature in semitransparent materials because a
local sensor would be exposed to the radiation from dis-
tant points in the material and from the environment.
Accordingly, there is an acute need for means of non-
contact temperature measurement on semitransparent
There are numerous primary papers concerned with
noncontact temperature measurements on semitrans-
parent electronic materials, but reviews are still lacking.
An exception is monograph , which thoroughly
treats laser-based measurement of temperature-depen-
dent parameters for solids, including semitransparent
ones. By contrast, this paper represents a review of the
Noncontact Temperature Measurement on Dielectrics
and Semiconductors, Part 1
V. K. Bitukov and V. A. Petrov
Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics, and Automation (Technical University), Moscow, Russia
Received March 3, 2004
—A review is presented of the spectral and temperature dependence of optical properties for homo-
geneous and inhomogeneous dielectrics and semiconductors, including organic substances and polymers.
Emphasis is placed on the surface pyrometry of homogeneous dielectrics in their opaque region, as well as on
the pyrometry of a uniform-temperature plane homogeneous dielectric layer.
MATERIALS AND MICROSTRUCTURE