1070-4272/03/7605-0751$25.00C2003 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 76, No. 5, 2003, pp. 751!754. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 76, No. 5,
2003, pp. 779!782.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2003 by Loginova, Kas’yan, Arkhangel’skaya, Raikhel’son.
AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS
Nickel!Zinc Battery with Nickel Oxide Electrode Made
of Spherical Nickel Hydroxide on Foamed Nickel Support
M. M. Loginova, T. B. Kas’yan, Z. P. Arkhangel’skaya, and L. B. Raikhel’son
Rigel’ Battery Company, Open Joint-Stock Company, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received October 28, 2002; in final form, January 2003
Abstract-Electrochemical and working characteristics of a nickel3zinc battery with nickel oxide electrode
made of spherical nickel hydroxide on foamed nickel support were determined.
Nickel3zinc (NZ) battery yielding high output
power is known as a power supply for means of trans-
portation, such as underwater vehicles, motor scooters,
motorcycles, and hybrid automobiles. Its specific
energy is as high as 75380 W h kg
, and specific
power, 250 W kg
. However, application of NZ
batteries for these purposes has been limited until
recently by their short service life and high cost of the
positive electrode with metal3ceramic (MC) support.
New methods for fabrication of nickel oxide elec-
trodes (NOE) of nickel3cadmium and nickel3metal
hydride batteries have been developed and success-
fully implemented. These methods employ highly dis-
persed materials, which are deposited onto a foamed
nickel (FN), rather than metal3ceramic, support. To
materials of this kind belong spherical nickel hydrox-
ide with addition of hydroxide compounds of cobalt
and zinc . Fabricated by pasting and subsequent
compaction, NOE have 1.231.5 times better specific
characteristics because of the use of a lighter support
and a compact arrangement of particles of the active
Use of spherical nickel hydroxide modified with
activating additives in an NZ battery in the form of
a compacted electrode with FN support may affect
substantially the processes occurring in the battery.
In particular, addition of cobalt hydroxide can prevent
the commonly occurring in NZ batteries [poisoning]
of a compacted NOE by zinc ions . In addition, the
dynamics of intraelectrode ([loss of shape]) and
interelectrode zinc transfer may change because of the
densified structure of NOE with spherical nickel
hydroxide, and this can affect the working capacity of
the zinc electrode. The loss of shape has been attri-
buted to various factors: phase segregation in the elec-
trolyte upon a change in the concentrations of KOH
, convection in the electrolyte ,
and nonuniform distribution of the current over the
electrode surface . Solution of this problem, which
is of high theoretical and practical importance, cannot
be considered conclusive up to now.
In this study, we determined the electrical char-
acteristics of an NTs-25 battery with compacted NOE
fabricated by pasting spherical nickel hydroxide onto
an FN support. Nickel hydroxide contained 5.6%
cobalt and 3.2% zinc. In other respects, the design and
technology of fabrication of the battery were the same
as those for a battery with MC NOE. The cobalt-to-
nickel ratio in the material used was close to the
optimal value [Co/(Co + Ni) = 0.07] .
The basic parameters of batteries of several types
differing in the amount of active paste in unit volume
of the positive electrode and in the ratio of active
paste masses in the positive and negative electrodes
are given in Table 1.
The calculated capacities of positive electrodes,
listed in Table 1, correspond to the transformation of
. The ratio of capacities of the negative
and positive electrodes in the batteries under study is
smaller than that in batteries with MC NOE, since
a greater amount of the active paste is contained in
the same NOE volume.
This makes it possible to obtain a higher capacity
from the battery in the initial cycles, but, at the same
time, creates conditions for fast accumulation of
excess charged phase in the zinc electrode, especially
so in view of the fact that an excess, with respect to
the calculated value, capacity should be imparted to
the positive electrode in battery forming.