Nickel-based Composite Electroplated Coating
V. I. Balakai, A. V. Arzumanova, I. V. Balakai, and I. F. Byrylov
South-Russian State Technical University (Novocherkassk Polytechnic Institute),
Novocherkassk, Rostov-on-Don oblast, Russia
Received December 9, 2009
Abstract―Electrolyte for deposition of a nickel–fluoroplastic composite coating was developed. The
physicomechanical properties of this coating were studied.
AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS
ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 12, pp. 2135–2139. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © V.I. Balakai, A.V. Arzumanova, I.V. Balakai, I.F. Byrylov, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 12,
The problem of development of materials with high
wear resistance and low friction coefficient remains
topical, and, therefore, self-lubricating and wear-resistant
composite coatings attract increasing researchers’
Nickel is widely used for electrodeposition of
protective and protective-decorative coatings. Ho-
wever, of practical interest is development of nickel-
based wear-resistant and self-lubricating composite
coatings. It has been shown  that the wear resistance
of nickel–graphite and nickel–cobalt–graphite coatings
is 3–4 times higher than the wear resistance of coatings
containing no graphite, and their friction coefficient is
1.5 times lower than that of ordinary coatings. It has
been found that the wear decreases upon introduction
of calcium fluoride particles into a nickel coating 
and in deposition of self-lubricating and wear-resistant
nickel–graphite and nickel–graphite–silicon carbide
Inclusion of high-melting particles of carbides,
borides, oxides, and other particles into coatings makes
higher their hardness and wear resistance [4, 5].
Modification of a nickel–boron coating with tungsten
carbide or calcium fluoride improves the antifriction
properties of the alloy .
The most promising for reinforcement of dry-
friction units at high sliding velocities and loads are
coating of the type constituted by a metal, high-
melting particles, and self-lubricating particles .
The possibility of using dispersed particles of
varied nature for deposition of composite electroplated
coatings (CECs) is determined by their physicochemical
properties. These are primarily the size, shape, and
ability to acquire a positive charge [1, 7]. The smaller
the size and the stronger the distortion of the crystal
lattice of particles, the easier is their capture by surface
irregularities of the metal. Acquiring a positive charge,
dispersed particles faster move toward the cathode and
are more easily incorporated into a coating. Their
introduction into an electrolyte strongly affects the
metal deposition kinetics.
It is commonly believed  that particles of the
dispersed phase can be transferred to the cathode owing
to adsorption on their surface of cations of a metal
being deposited. Having reached the cathode, dis-
persed particles are overgrown with a metal being
discharged, together with adsorbed cations . Being
an electron-acceptor, fluoroplastic must tend to acquire
a negative charge in an electrolyte solution. This, in
turn, must favor adsorption of nickel cations on its
surface, so that, in the end, coarsened dispersed
particles moving to the cathode are incorporated into
the crystal lattice of the deposit.
To improve the wear resistance of nickel coatings,
it was suggested to introduce fluoroplastic into a
nickel-based composite material.
The goal of our study was to examine properties of
nickel–fluoroplastic CECs deposited from a chloride
electrolyte and the possibility of their application as
wear- and corrosion-resistant coatings.
The current efficiency (CE) by nickel, nickel–
cobalt–diamond CEC, and hydrogen was determined