Newspaper reporting of the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise, part 2: framing the hazard

Newspaper reporting of the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise, part 2: framing the hazard An analysis of the front pages of 120 consecutive editions of the local newspaper for the island of La Réunion (France), “Le Journal de L’Ile de La Réunion”, published before, during and after the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise reveals that its front page is an ideal vehicle for maximizing information delivery and recall during a volcanic eruption. Supported by flash tests, and by cross-checking with a content analysis of information given within the newspaper, we find that the front page is an effective gauge for the hazardframe which,for thecaseexaminedhere, involved six volcanic hazards (pit-crater collapse, lava flows, gas, air fall, ocean entry lava flow and bench collapse), as well as the issue of evacuation. We found that crater collapse and lava flow hazards were framed using their natural colors and clear imagery of the phenomenon, tied to context-setting explanations within the newspaper. However, for lava flows in particular there was an element of spectacle and promotion of sightseeing, with photographs always featuring sightseers invariably taking photographs. After the end of the eruption reporting became almost entirely focused on tourists and sightseeing. Gas and ash fall hazard were framed using images and words of the victims, so that it became worrying and frightening, and associated with panic. As a result, the volcano itself became portrayed as a monster, and the situation for the impacted population became “apocalyptic” and “hellish”. This probably contributed to the evacuation measures being described as confused and pointless, with the morale of the impacted population suffering accordingly. The ocean entry and bench collapse had no frameatall,and became associated with the dead, exotic fish that were collected; this hazard thus being framed as an interesting curiosity rather than a volcanic hazard. The front page-tracking model followed here could guide future educative measures during volcanic crises by quickly identifying, on the basis of front page analysis, hazards that are appropriately conveyed versus those that are poorly portrayed. Responses to rectify a poor frame can include reactive scientific advertising, a route that is used commonly by businesses seeking to boost sales by taking timely advantage of a developing newspaper frame, and distribution of appropriately designed and timed press releases. Keywords: The press, Front-page, Images, Headlines, Short-term memory, Hazard-communication, Volcanic eruption Introduction which construct public representations of risk (Kasperson Through whatever mass media avenue news is received et al. 1988). The mass media thus becomes an agent by a reader, viewer or listener the message will have been through which society learns about risks, hazards and en- shaped by the communication route that the informa- vironmental disasters (Kasperson and Kasperson 1996). In tion has taken between the source and the receiver (e.g., this sense, the newspaper is one mass media outlet that Rosten 1937; Cater 1959; Cohen 1963). Following the so- can act as a filter that sits at the center of a communica- cial amplification of risk framework, the mass media tion system and operates to shape the perception of a haz- plays a pivotal role as a “station” for relaying “signals” ard amongst the readership. Through placement, selection (of story, data and source), exaggeration, omission and preference the newspaper places bias, slant and spin into * Correspondence: andrew.harris@uca.fr the information received (Harris 2015a) thereby setting an Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, IRD, OPGC, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, 6 Avenue Blaise Pascal, 63178 Aubière, France Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 2 of 28 agenda (McCombs 2014) and framing the news (Reese (Staudacher et al. 2008), and leaving a deep and lasting im- et al. 2010). McCombs (2014) argued, for example, that pression in the minds of the impacted population (Payet newspapers, 2007). Le Journal de L’Ile de La Réunion (JIR) is one of the two main island newspapers, and between Febru- “communicate a host of cues about the relative ary and May of 2007 hazard-related information ap- salience of the topics on their daily agenda. The lead peared on the front pages of the JIR on 34 out of the story on page 1, front page versus inside page, the size 120 publication days and accounted for 21.94 m of of the headline, and even the length of the story all newspaper space (see part 1 of this study Harris & communicate the salience of topics.” Villeneuve, 2018). As we argue in Part 1, the opportunity to communicate, and thereby also educate on, volcanic These cues are laid out as part of the newspaper de- hazard was thus maximized. Here we carry out a content sign and will influence what the readership thinks about analysis of this published information, focusing on the and how they think about it (McCombs and Shaw 1972; format of the messages displayed on the front page of the Vu et al. 2014). Cohen (1963), for example, concluded JIR, to assess the way in which that information was that in providing such cues the press, framed. This information, following the social amplification of risk framework (SARF) of Kasperson et al. (1988), and as “may not be successful much of the time in telling its evolved by Kasperson (1992), Kasperson and Kasperson readers what to think, but is stunningly successful in (1996)and Kaspersonetal. (2003), will inform on how the telling its readers what to think about.” risk or hazard is perceived by the receiver (i.e., the readership) and whether or not the risk is amplified or The public can then use such cues to organize their attenuated. The hazard frame during a volcanic crisis thus own agendas and to decide which topics are important needs to be defined and tracked if we are to understand (McCombs 2014). Bogart (1955) thus argued that “the how information is received and perceived by newspaper mass media provide a natural source of conversational (and other mass media) readerships and, most importantly, material,” with the content providing an “array of col- how we can better communicate the desired message to lective images” that can be “introduced into conversa- the wider population during a volcanic emergency. tion.” That is, the way in which the information is given “frames” the event, influencing the perception of that Framing volcanic hazard event amongst the recipient population (Reese et al. Rowe et al. (2000) argued that, while the quantity of 2010). In hazard communication and education it is fun- coverage of hazards will be a major influence on risk damental that we define the components of such frames perception amongst an incident population, the way in and recognize the message thereby communicated so as which the media present the hazard information will to allow an understanding of the readership’s perception also influence reader perceptions. That is, the media will of, for example, a volcanic eruption impacting their report the hazard in such a way so as to encourage a community. For example, how will the reader viewing certain perception of the event (e.g., Dawson and Lyons the three front pages of Figs. 1, 2 and 3—all of which 2003; Washer 2004; Wallis and Nerlich 2005; Höijer were published in the local newspaper that serves the Island et al. 2006). Thus, in the context of content analysis, of Réunion during the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la framing becomes defined as the presentation of informa- Fournaise—view the volcanologist, volcanology and the on- tion in such a way that a particular interpretation, view going volcanic emergency? or evaluation of an event is promoted (Entman 2004). Our aim here is thus to assess the effectiveness of This is the definition of “frame” and “framing” applied newspaper design in framing risk, hazard and response dur- here, where information regarding the volcanic hazard ing a volcanic eruption, using the April 2007 eruption of passes through a series of filters that mean that informa- Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion, France) as our case tion is organized and described (Kahneman and Tversky study. This was the largest historical eruption of Piton de la 1984) in a way so as to promote a particular interpret- Fournaise (Staudacher et al. 2009), with a short initial phase ation (Harris 2015a). which began on 30–31 March 2007 being followed by a The front page layout of a newspaper, for example, is main phase that began on 2 April. While heavy tephra fall carefully designed to display a clear message that makes a affected an area to the SE of the vent, gas effects were felt person want to buy the newspaper, while giving the reader as far away as Mauritius (220 km to the NNE) and the vil- something to think about (Rowe et al. 2000). In providing lage of Le Tremblet was evacuated (see Part 1 of this study). cues through pictures and colors, plus through delivery of The eruption continued until 1 May 2007, cutting the a few, large, bold, evocative words in the headlines, news- island perimeter road, causing two major collapses of paper front pages are extremely effective in delivering an the Dolomieu Crater, setting up a major ocean entry immediate message (Naccarato and Neuendorf 1998); Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 3 of 28 Fig. 1 Front page of JIR on 15 April 2007 (N 18360) featuring a potential hazard (OVNI is French for Unidentified Flying Object—“UFO”) not related to the natural hazard considered here, where this newspaper was published on day 13 of Piton de la Fournaise’s April 2007 eruption thereby framing the featured event (Reese 2010)and down- the featured focus being an eye-catching distraction playing–through selecting and highlighting certain events that will likely leave a lasting impression in the viewer’s over others (Entman 2004)–another (c.f. Figs. 1, 2 and 3). It mind. In Fig. 2, the eruption is a secondary frame is quite clear, for example, how the selection and use of which is easily missed—being only given in text images in the examples of Figs. 1, 2 and 3—all of which above a primary frame which is framed in image and were published during the April 2007 eruption of Piton de text and which dominates the page. Again, both the la Fournaise—frame the natural hazard. In the case of text and imagery of the featured focus will likely Fig. 1 the event in which we are interested in commu- dominant the viewer’s attention. In Fig. 3,the nicating (the volcanic eruption and its hazard) has no volcanic hazard becomes the primary frame. In all presence and thereby goes unnoticed in spite of con- cases, the primary frame has been set up through tinued impact on communities in the SE of the island; design. Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 4 of 28 Fig. 2 Front page of JIR on 31 March 2007 (N 18345). The onset of eruptive activity is announced as a front page header (top-right text box which reads “Piton de la Fournaise in eruption since last evening”) with the reader being referred to the internal, page 5, report. However, the main headline and image is not related to the onset of the eruption, and dominates the reader’s attention Designing the news page and the way in which an event is framed. In terms It is well-known that the front page of a newspaper pro- of delivering effective text messages as headlines, a num- vides an impression which is “immediate and determin- ber of short-term memory recall issues are key: ant” on the reader, and needs to “excite the curiosity” of the reader (Martin-Lagardette 2009), with the front page  Theme-recall is better for phonemically similar lists imagery forming a “picture” in the “heads” of the readers (Wickelgren 1965); but (Lippmann 1922) regarding the days newsworthy topics.  Greater error will occur in retrieval of the exact Thus, the wording of headlines, imagery used on, and words in correct order if words in a list are layout of, the front page require careful consideration if phonemically similar (Baddeley 1968); we want to understand the message being communi-  Recall will diminish with word length (Baddeley cated regarding topics presented on the newspaper front et al. 1975; Baddeley 2012); Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 5 of 28 Fig. 3 Front page of JIR on 5 April 2007 (N 18350) three days after the eruption began and at the height of gas and tephra emission Middle-length words are recalled worse when they  Repetition and familiarity enhances ability to memorize are followed by long-words than when they are a word list (Ebbinghaus 1885;Tulving 1985). followed by short-words (Campoy 2008); Word length effects are worse for read than spoken Baddeley et al. (1975)arguedthatmemoryspanis words, and are also worse for words at the end of a equivalent to the number of words that can be read in list than at the beginning (Neath and Nairne 1995); two seconds, where extensive testing has proved that 7 Words at the beginning and end of a list are ±2 “chunks” of information can be held in the short- remembered better than words in the middle term memory (see Cowan (2000) for thorough review). (Glanzer and Cunitz 1966) All of this leads to the conclusion that the most effect- A familiar proverb matched with an appropriate ive headline delivery is achieved with a short (7 ± 2 semantic association activates memory more word)stringofshort,popular,familiarwords,ofinter- effectively than an unfamiliar proverb (Della Sala leaved middle and short length words, with the most et al. 2010); important words appearing at the beginning and end. Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 6 of 28 Thus, the advice in most journalism textbooks is to (i) extremely effective in focusing the audience on the key never use a long word, when a short word will do; (ii) if message (e.g. Duarte 2008; Dirkson 2012; Reynolds 2014). it is possible to cut out a word, then cut it out; and (iii) Again, use of bold and color can be seen in setting up the never use foreign, scientific or jargonized words when an headline hierarchy of Fig. 4. everyday equivalent is available (Harcup 2009). Atkinson It is also well-known that human-beings have a “vast (2011) adds two rules when writing a headline: (i) write memory” for pictures (Standing et al. 1972; Standing concise sentences with a subject and a verb in active voice, 1973), so that image-based messages can be much more and (ii) be clear, direct, specific and conversational. We memorable than texturally or verbally delivered mes- see this put into play in the four headlines of Fig. 4 where sages (Paivio and Caspo 1973). Effective message deliv- the length of the headlines is 6 ± 3 words, word lengths ery can thus be achieved through just a momentary are generally short, involve a mixture of short- and glance at an image (Standing et al. 1972), with images medium-length words which are simple and familiar, with containing a concealed object (or obscured object) being the most important words being placed first and last in just as effective for mnemonic purposes as one in which each headline. In short, the design of each slogan will all objects are pictured, although the latter is certainly a maximize the chance of short-term memory storage of much more vivid communication means (Neisser and Kerr most of the headline. 1973). Use of appropriate imagery is also an effective com- In addition, messages are more quickly ingested if deliv- munication device to enhance learning (Dutrow 2007). ered in easy-to-read fonts, with display of selected words Carney and Levin (2002) thus argued that “whether ancient in uppercase, bold, larger size and/or color font being cave painting or computer screen icon, pictures are part of Fig. 4 Front page of JIR on 3 March 2007 (N 18317) illustrating the perfect format for headline writing and front page layout if recall using the short-term memory is to be maximized. The newspaper was devoted to follow-up of the passage of cyclone Gamède which passed within 250 km of the island of La Réunion on 24 February 2007, and then again on 27–28 February 2007; the front page header reading “The cyclones which have marked the history of La Réunion”. The front page spread and imagery is devoted to the “mysterious skeletons” which were unearthed due to coastal erosion during the passage of Gamède Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 7 of 28 the human experience,” so that “carefully constructed illus- dominates the front page with the primary (largest trations” are “effective text adjuncts” in message delivery. font) headline inset. Although pictures are more memorable than words, to achieve ultimate memory recall, pictures and words The text of all front page headlines were recorded, the should be used together (Mayer and Anderson 1992). type of hazard to which they referred assigned a class This especially applies to those with little knowledge of (following the coding system laid out in part 1), and the the theme being delivered. Mayer and Syms (1994), for theme and dominant color of each image noted. The example, found that. number of words in each headline, and the number of letters in each word, were also recorded, and images “Inexperienced students were better able to transfer assigned a binary code depending on whether people or what they had learned about a scientific system when faces were present (1) or not (0). Internal articles relat- visual and verbal explanations were presented ing to volcanic activity were processed following the concurrently than when visual and verbal methodology laid out in part 1 of this work. explanations were separated.” We then carried out a “flash test” to assess the effect of the front page information content and design on the As a result Naccarato and Neuendorf (1998) identified short term memory of the casual observer. The test the four components of a “perfect” advertisement, this followed the format of the short-term memory tests of being a presentation format that maximizes readership Baddeley et al. (1975) whereby ten front pages on which information delivery, attractiveness and recall through the volcano and its activity was featured as the main appropriately mixing text and imagery. These four com- image and headline were displayed for 1.5 s. Between ponents are (Neuendorf 2002): each display, subjects were given nine seconds to write down those words that entered their head, before being 1. Headline placement at top; given a five second stop cue, and then a five second 2. Sub-elements in large, bold fonts; pause during which a black screen was displayed. The 3. Use of color; with next page was then displayed. The second test involved 4. The subject being visually apparent. the display of only the front page flags. The test was the same, except that 11 front page flags were displayed, and In addition, Martin-Lagardette (2009) recommends, the subjects were given just four seconds to write down when considering imagery for inclusion on the front all words they could remember from the text in any se- page of a newspaper, a preference for images that in- quence. Finally, as a control, a front page on which the clude faces or people. We can again see these design in- volcano was featured only as a front page flag, and one fluences being applied in the front page example of Fig. where no volcanic information was given, were dis- 4. Thus, the agenda laid out in words and pictures in played. The tests were applied to three groups, two with prominent newspaper positions will be a powerful in- knowledge of the volcano and its activity, and who were fluence in focusing public opinion on particular themes, regular visitors to active sites, and one with no such ex- issues or viewpoints (e.g., Katzman 1972;Morris and perience. The two experienced groups were all 19 staff Peng 1994;Roweet al. 2000). The front page design, members (research, operations, technical, administrative and the frame this creates, thus needs to be considered and non-permanent scientific members) of the Piton de in any content analysis aimed at understanding the ef- la Fournaise Volcano Observatory (OVPF), plus 52 fect of the news format on readership perceptions of a tourist-guide professionals attending a training program natural hazard. for guided visits to active sites during eruptions. The inex- perienced group was 24 third year geography students at Method l’Université de La Réunion (St. Denis). Words recorded in All editions of JIR published during March, April and each test were then placed into one of three classes: im- May 2007 were checked for content regarding activity pacts or volcanic processes, normal life and perturbed life. at Piton de la Fournaise. All front page articles relating to volcanic activity were then classified into one of Results two groups: A total of 23 front page articles devoted to volcanic ac- tivity (13 front page flags and 10 front page spreads) Front page flags (FP-F): that is, text boxes at the top appeared between February and May 2007, of which 16 or sides of the front page pointing readers to the appeared during April (Table 1). The average number most newsworthy stories inside the newspaper. of words appearing in front page headlines relating to Front page spread (FP-S): this being the “story-of- volcanic activity was 5 ± 2, with a mode and median of the-day” featuring a large color photograph that four. This compares with 4 ± 2 for all front page Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 8 of 28 Table 1 Headline analysis of front page flags (FP-F) and spreads (FP-S) relating to activity at Piton de la Fournaise during March, April and May 2007 Date Type Text: French (with English translation) Hazard Text Theme Picture Theme 27 FP-F Volcan en vigilance et séisme à Saint-Denis Seismic volcano/vigilance/seismic/ NO PICTURE March (Volcano under surveillance and earthquake at Saint-Denis) Saint-Denis 31 FP-F Le Piton de la Fournaise en éruption depuis hier soir Eruption Piton/eruption/yesterday NO PICTURE March (Piton de la Fournaise in eruption since yesterday evening) 1 April FP-F Une autre éruption en vue (Another eruption on the horizon) Eruption eruption explosion/ejecta 3 April FP-S De la route à la mer (On the road to the sea) Lava road/sea lava/responders/cameras/ sightseers 4 April FP-F NUAGE DE GAZ SUR ST-JOSEPH: Une cinquantaine Gas cloud/gas/toxic NO PICTURE d’élèves intoxiqués (GAS CLOUD OVER ST-JOSEPH): Around 50 students intoxicated 4 April FP-S LE VOLCAN DEVIENT FOU (THE VOLCANO'S GONE MAD) Lava volcano/mad lava/fire/orange/sightseer 5 April FP-F Le Tremblet se prépare à évacuer (Le Tremblet prepares Evacuation Le Tremblet/evacuate NO PICTURE to evacuate) 5 April FP-S Alerte aux GAZ (GAS alert) Gas alert/gas cloud/white/lava/orange 6 April FP-S Le Tremblet sous les cendres (Le Tremblet under the ash) Ash Le Tremblet/ash people/cars/ash/road/umbrella 7 April FP-S Le volcan s’effondre (The volcano collapses) Collapse volcano/collapse crater/grey/black 8 April FP-F Volcan à grand spectacle (The volcano big show) Eruption volcano/show NO PICTURE 9 April FP-F Sainte-Rose: de drôles de poissons repêchés au Ocean Sainte-Rose/fish fish/orange/bucket large de l’éruption (Sainte-Rose: the funny fish fished Entry up at the height of the eruption) 9 April FP-S Le Dolomieu après le chaos (The Dolomieu after the chaos) Collapse Dolomieu/chaos brown/steam/crater/ash 10 April FP-F Le volcan livre les mystères des abysses (The volcano Ocean volcano/mystery/abyss lava/orange delivers the mysteries of the deep) Entry 11 April FP-S Le nouveau visage du volcan (The new face of the volcano) Collapse face/volcano crater/gray/sightseer/camera 13 April FP-S Hier 15h05 (Yesterday 15h05) Collapse yesterday brown/plume/volcano 22 April FP-S Les secrets de la Soufrière (The secrets of the Soufrière) Collapse secret/La Soufrière grey/crater/people 27 April FP-S La lave en route vers le Tremblet (Lava on the road Lava lava/Le Tremblet lava/orange/road/fire engines/ towards Le Tremblet) village 3 May FP-F Une des plus grosses éruptions du volcan (One of the Eruption big/eruption/volcano lava/orange biggest eruptions of the volcano) 5 May FP-F Quatre points de vue ouverts ce matin (Four viewing Eruption four/viewing/open lava/plume/white/black/green points open this morning) 6 May FP-F Volcan: 135 euros pour avoir vu les coulées Lava volcano/135 €/view/lava tourists/barrier/lava/black de trop près! (Volcano: 135 euro to have seen the lava flows close up) 13 May FP-F Le sommet s’effondre à nouveau (The summit Collapse summit/collapse/again trees/brown/cone/yellow/lava/ collapses again) black/tourists 26 May FP-F Coulées du Grand-Brûlé: pas de route avant août Lava lava/Grand-Brûlé/road/ NO PICTURE (Lava flows of the Grand-Brûlé: no road before August) August headlines appearing over the 120 days of the study three moderate-length (7–8 letter) words separated period, with a range of two to nine, a median of four, by three short (1–2 letter) words, making it a and a mode of three. perfectly-sized phrase for ease of recall. In terms of design, all front page formats followed the 2. A sub-element involving three, short, simple words model of Fig. 4. The example of Fig. 3 illustrates adher- (Alert to GAS) in a large, bold font, with the hazard ence to this format by the newspaper on a day when the (Gas) being capitalized. volcano featured as the front-page spread: 3. Effective use of color for the main image, and a simple white font on a black background for the 1. Headline placement at top reading “Le Tremblet front page flag, plus red for the pointer to the prepares itself to evacuate”, which in French is internal page reporting; Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 9 of 28 4. The image expressing the subject takes up 83% of When associated with hazardous situations this involved the front page. firemen, policemen, civil protection officials or coast- guards; meaning that in each case a responder was pic- If we examine the front page examples given in tured protecting structures, responding to crime, assessing Figs. 5 and 6, we see an identical design in terms of a hazard, or rescuing people. Note, for example, that the word and imagery use and layout. Given the recommen- main images of Figs. 5 and 7 include people, with Fig. 5 in- dation of Martin-Lagardette (2009) regarding inclusion of cluding a policeman (Gendarmerie)—even if he is in the people or faces in front page images, we also checked all second row and taking a photograph. front-page spread images for such a preference. Of 117 front pages examined over the four month study period, a What volcanic hazards did the front page focus on? face or a person featured in 91 of them. That is, 78% of By number of front pages carrying volcanic hazard as the the front pages featured a person carrying out an action. main theme, the collapse events of the Cratère Dolomieu Fig. 5 Front page of JIR on 3 April 2007 (N 18348). The onset of eruptive activity is announced with the headline “From the road to the sea”, with the reader being referred to an internal report, plus a four page photo montage (p. 35–38) Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 10 of 28 Fig. 6 Front page of JIR published on 4 April 2007 (N 18349). A visitor watches lava entering the eruption under the title “the volcano’sgone mad” featured most highly, being the main theme of six of the Thus, in terms of word repetition, the material damage front page articles. Next was lava (five front page appear- (to the road) caused by lava ingress and the need for ances), followed by gas and ocean entry hazards (two appear- evacuation (of Le Tremblet) were the most important is- ances), with seismic, ash and evacuation themes featuring on sues. These were texturally linked with the generic haz- the front page just once (Table 1). However, if we complete a ard due to the volcano or the eruption, rather than word count on all words appearing in all front page head- specific hazards such as lava flow, air fall or gas. In lines of Table 1, weinstead havethefollowing ranking: terms of individual hazard, lava + flow was the most frequently used (three occurrences), followed by gas 1. Volcano (eight occurrences); and collapse (both with two occurrences), and then 2. Eruption (four occurrences); seismic, ash and sea each with one occurrence. 3. Le Tremblet (three occurrences); In terms of the dominant theme of the front page, this 4. Road (three occurrences). began with lava and the crossing of the road and ocean Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 11 of 28 Fig. 7 Front page of JIR on 9 April (N 18854) featuring the collapse of the Cratère Dolomieu under the title “The Dolomieu after the chaos”. This was also the first time (in 2007) that the Ocean Entry made the front page, and is apparent as a front page flag entitled “Sainte-Rose: funny fish fished-up at the height of the eruption” entry on 3 and 4 April, respectively. Focus then switched activity type until 7 April, when the focus became dis- to gas and air fall on 5 and 6 April, respectively, be- tracted by the collapse of the Dolomieu; the “hazard- fore becoming entirely focused on the collapse of the of-the-day” being demoted to an (often-poorly framed) Dolomieu (on 7,9,11, 13 and 22April). Thiswas in front page flag (e.g., Fig. 7). spite of the fact that the main collapse occurred on 6– 7 April, but ocean entry and lava flow continued Words and images throughout the eruption. The threat of lava flow inva- In terms of the words and imagery associated with the sion to Le Tremblet only became a focus again on the eruption we find the following commonalities: final front page that featured the eruption, that of 27 April, when the eruption had more-or-less ended.  Lava was associated with the color orange during Thus, the reporting of hazard followed the primary the eruption, and black after it; the collapse was Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 12 of 28 framed in gray and the gas plume in white (c.f. better familiarity with the volcano and its products Figs. 3, 5 and 7); amongst the former two groups than the latter, with fumes With one exception, people were always pictured being the association of the students with the plume. taking photographs. Note that all 11 people in the The OVPF staff, guide and student groups respectively front page image of Fig. 5 are taking a picture; as used 235, 251 and 216 different words to describe the already noted this even includes the ten front pages displayed. However, imagery and headline responder—even the scientist-in-charge of OVPF words failed to conjure up feelings of risk, hazard or loss, was pictured taking a picture when he appeared in instead they evoked reactions such as “red”, “hat”, “sea”, the front page image of 11 April 2007; “bus stop”, “new” and “face”, the only hazard-relevant word With one exception, people appearing in recorded being “chaos” (Table 2). In the case of “hat”,this eruption imagery were always sightseers and was due to the silhouette of a sightseer being prominent on tourists (e.g., Fig. 6); the front page of the 4 April edition of JIR (Fig. 6). Words and pictures associated with ocean effects For the flash tests completed for the front page flags, focused on “fish”, “mystery” and the “abyss”,with the all three groups retained 3 ± 1 words, and all three groups ocean entry being framed in such a way three times recorded 56 different words. There was a weak positive on the front page as a flag (Table 1). A good example correlation (R = 0.6) between the number of words in the of this frame is the example of Fig. 7,which text and the number of different words returned by all frames the ocean effects with a picture of a dead participants. All words in the text were returned only for exotic-looking fish against a neutral background cases less than six words in length. We recorded retention which, although being the bottom of a sample beaker, of hazard and risk words in the first three cases (Table 3); has a first-glance resemblance of a frying pan; thereafter words such as “show”, “fish”, “mystery”, “open” Keywords used changed in time from and “view” dominated. When, given the front page of 31 ○ “vigilance” through March (Fig. 2), no respondent noticed that the eruption ○ “toxic”, “mad”, “evacuate”, “alert” and “chaos”,to had begun—as announced by a front page flag in the top- ○ “show”, “mystery”, “new face”, “secret”, “open” left corner of the page. and “view”. If we examine the class of word retained from flash test results for both the headline and front page flag, we find The event-frame thus evolved from one of alert to one that the statistics are again identical for all three groups of show; attracting sightseers who took photographs (Fig. 9). Although words associated with volcanic hazards from a close distance, with the time-frame invariably be- represented up to 60% of the words by type; typically less ing “yesterday” (Table 1). than 11% were words associated with a perturbed life. In fact, for the text boxes, around 60% of the words were as- Flash tests sociated with a normal life (Fig. 9). Hence, the per- Results of our content analysis were borne out by those ception of the event was not one of alarm, but of the flash tests. Flash tests completed using the front instead the imagery and text used framed the event pages revealed that imagery and headline words used as non-risky and safe; even approachable and exciting. reflected the range of hazards quite evenly, with all haz- ards being amongst the top ten most frequent responses Discussion for all groups (Fig. 8). In fact, we see that the distribu- Because of the excellent design of the front page of JIR in tions of Fig. 8 are consistent with the top three words terms of maximizing information delivery to the short- recorded from the front page tests being the same for term memory, it is important to understand what message each group. These were: was likely received by the readership and how that framed each volcanic process and its associated hazard. We here 1. Volcano (accounting for 9–10% of all words discuss what that message was, and search reports deeper recorded in all three cases); in the newspaper to understand if this message was sup- 2. Collapse (5–6%); and ported by the detailed reporting within the body of the 3. Lava (4–6%). newspaper. We then finish by exploring what were the effective elements of the framing process, so as to provide After that, all other words recorded were the same— guidelines as to how the volcanologist can define, track with the exception of “fumes”, which was only recorded and respond to frames in the mass media. by the student group. Interestingly, the OVPF and guide groups both had “Dolomieu” and “flow” as the 4th and The frames 5th most commonly recorded words, whereas the student Our content analysis shows that only the well-known group had “road” and “fumes”. This no doubt reflects (pit crater and lava flow) hazards were framed in a way Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 13 of 28 Fig. 8 (See legend on next page.) Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 14 of 28 (See figure on previous page.) Fig. 8 Top ten words recorded across all ten front page tests by (a) the OVPF group, (b) the guide group and (c) the student group. Results are given as percentages of the total number of words recorded, this being 575, 1436 and 688 for the three groups, respectively. Actual number of times each word was recorded is given at the head of each bar. Original language is used (i.e. actual words shown) where these are: volcan = volcano; effondrement = collapse; lave = lava; coulee = flow; cendre = ash; cratere = crater; gaz = gas; route = road; panache = plume; mer = ocean; fumes = fumes that provided effective hazard communication that could 1. That of 7 April 2007 (Fig. 10a) was entitled “the achieve the disaster managers goal, that being to educate volcano collapses”; featuring an image of the crater the population through reporting in the mass media (e.g., (Table 1), that was recalled as “volcano”, “collapse” Coppola 2015). Instead, gas, air fall and ocean entry haz- and “crater” by the flash tests (Table 2). ards, as well as evacuation plans and the functioning of 2. That of 11 April 2007 (Fig. 10b) was entitled “the new decision making system were poorly framed, thereby face of the volcano”; it featured a man taking a picture failing as an educative measure. Instead, they served to of the crater (Table 1), who four members of the OVPF further engender a frame of entertainment, uncertainty, staff recognized as being Thomas Staudacher (Table 2), fear, panic and failure. the director of OVPF at the time of the eruption. 3. That of 13 April 2007 (Fig. 10c) was simply labeled The pit-crater collapse frame “yesterday 15h05”; giving an image of the brown The front page representation of pit-crater collapse is plume resulting from the collapse (Table 1), that well-expressed by the JIR front page spread of 9 April was recalled as “cinder”, “plume” and “yesterday” by 2007 (Fig. 7). Here we see a sober, daytime image of the the flash tests (Table 2). summit pit resulting from the 8 April collapse overlain 4. The front page spread of 22 April 2007 led of the with a headline comprising five, short words: “The Dolo- Sunday edition of the JIR (Fig. 10d) and, being the mieu after the chaos”. Here, the word “chaos” is used for advertisement for a review piece on “seven special “collapse”, with collapse being used in all later headlines. pages” devoted to pit crater formation at the The four other front page spreads pertaining to summit Cratère Dolomieu was evocatively entitled “the collapse were equally sober: secrets of La Soufrière.” Table 2 Results of front page flash tests, giving the number of words recorded by the OVPF group Run Date Headline (see Table 1 for translation Theme Average No. No Diff Responses with frequency > 3 of headlines) (English translation in parentheses) 1 03/04/2007 De la route à la mer (Fig. 5) Lava 3.4 ± 1.3 62 26 route (9); lave (7); volcan (7); mer (4); rouge (4) (road, lava, volcano, sea, red) 2 04/04/2007 LE VOLCAN DEVIENT FOU (Fig. 6) Lava 3.5 ± 1.1 62 25 volcan (11); chapeau (7); feu (6); fou (5); nuit (5); rouge (4) (volcano, hat, fire, mad, night, red) 3 05/04/2007 Alerte aux GAZ (Fig. 3) Gas 3.6 ± 0.9 65 25 gaz (14); mer (11); fumée (6); alerte (4); coulée (4); volcan (4) (gas, sea, smoking, alert, flow, volcano) 4 06/04/2007 Le Tremblet sous les cendres (Fig. 12) Ash 2.9 ± 1.3 55 23 cendres (10); Tremblet (9); parapluie (6); Bus + arête (4) (ash, Tremblet (the village of), umbrella, bus + stop) 5 07/04/2007 Le volcan s’effondre (Fig. 9a) Collapse 3.1 ± 1.0 56 20 effondrement (14); volcan (10); cratère (4); Dolomieu (4) (collapse, volcano, crater, Dolomieu–the crater of) 6 09/04/2007 Le Dolomieu après le chaos (Fig. 7) Collapse 2.9 ± 1.3 54 22 Dolomieu (12); chaos (7); après (4); cratère (4); effondrement (4) (Dolomieu, chaos, after, crater, collapse) 7 11/04/2007 Le nouveau visage du volcan (Fig. 10b) Collapse 3.3 ± 1.2 59 24 cratère (7); volcan (7); nouveau (5); visage (5); Thomas Staudacher (4) (crater, volcano, new, face, Thomas Staudacher–Scientist-In-Charge of OVPF) 8 13/04/2007 Hier 15 h05 (Fig. 10c) Collapse 3.3 ± 0.9 56 24 volcan (9); panache (7); cendre (6); hier (6) (volcano, plume, ash, yesterday) 9 22/04/2007 Les secrets de la Soufrière (Fig. 10d) Collapse 3.1 ± 1.3 56 25 Soufrière (11); secret (4) (Soufrière, secret) 10 27/04/2007 La lave en route vers le Tremblet (Fig. 11) Lava 3.4 ± 1.3 61 20 lave (12); Tremblet (10); coulée (9); route (6); rouge (4) (lava, Tremblet (the village of), flow, road, red) Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 15 of 28 Table 3 Results of front page flag flash tests, giving the number of words recorded by the OVPF group. See Table 1 for translation of headlines Run Date Headline Theme Average No. Words No Diff Responses with frequency > 3 (English translation in parentheses) 1 27/03/2007 Volcan en vigilance et séisme à Earthquake 2.7 ± 1.0 8 48 volcan (15); vigilance (14); séisme (7) Saint-Denis (volcano, watch (as in hurricane watch, for example), earthquake) 2 04/04/2007 NUAGE DE GAZ SUR ST-JOSEPH: Gas 2.4 ± 0.6 10 43 cinquantaine (11); élèves (8); intoxiqué (7); Une cinquantaine d’élèves intoxiqués gaz (4) (around 50, pupils, intoxicated, gas) 3 05/04/2007 Le Tremblet se prépare à évacuer Evacuation 2.7 ± 0.8 6 49 Tremblet (17); évacuation (13); prépare (9) (Tremblet–the village of, evacuation, perpares) 4 08/04/2007 Volcan à grand spectacle Eruption 2.6 ± 0.7 4 46 Grand (10); spectacle (16); volcan (16) (Big, show, volcano) 5 09/04/2007 Sainte-Rose: de drôles de poissons Ocean Entry 2.9 ± 0.8 10 52 poisson (12); St. Rose (12) drôle (6) (Fish, St. repêchés au large de l’éruption Rose–the town of, funny) 6 10/04/2007 Le volcan livre les mystères des Ocean Entry 2.6 ± 0.6 7 46 volcan (17); mystère (10); livre (8); abysses (7) abysses (Volcano, mystery, delivers, abyss) 7 03/05/2007 Une des plus grosses éruptions Eruption 2.7 ± 1.0 7 49 grosse (15); éruption (12) plus (6); volcan (5) du volcan (big, eruption, prefix for the biggest (plus grosse = the biggest), volcano) 8 05/05/2007 Quatre points de vue ouverts Eruption 3.1 ± 1.6 7 56 ouvert (12); point (11); quatre (8); vue (8); ce matin matin (5) (open, point, four, view, morning) 9 06/05/2007 Volcan: 135 euros pour avoir vu Lava 2.9 ± 0.9 11 53 135 (16); € (14); volcan (8); près (6); coulée (4) les coulées de trop près! (135, volcano, near, lava) 10 13/05/2007 Le sommet s’effondre à nouveau collapse 2.3 ± 0.7 5 42 effondre (13); sommet (13); nouveau (9) (collapse, summit, new) 11 26/05/2007 Coulées du Grand-Brûlé: pas de Lava 2.7 ± 1.0 9 48 coulée (10); Brulée (9); Grande (8); route (7); route avant août aout (5); pas (4) (flow, burnt–although this is associated with the place name, Le Grande Breulée ... hence the next word–Grande, road, August, not). People were rarely included in imagery of summit col- events. The only ones to have been taken by lapse, with a person appearing in only one of the four surprise by the summit collapse which began on front-page spread images that appeared during April 2007. Friday are the scientists.” In terms of internal reporting, the risk of crater rim in- stabilities and collapse was well-known, having already been However, this frame changed for the second collapse stressed in a 29 March 2007 report by Martel-Asselin event. Instead this event was described as a “menace”, (2007a). On 4 April, a page 11 report focused on the poten- being announced with the page 10 headline, tial of summit collapse, quoting OVPF staff as saying “the earthquakes are probably precursory signs of a collapse ATTENTION, DANGER! beneath the summit zone” (Martel-Asselin 2007b). Thus, The Bory Crater takes his turn to threaten. this was a relatively well-known hazard and an event for which the readership was well prepared. Collapses also became associated with ash plume haz- However, possibly because of the distance of Cratère ard, with VAAC and Metéo France air-space warnings Dolomieu’s summit from populated areas and because being reported after both the 3 and 12 April collapses. the crater area is a major tourist attraction, the pit- On 17 April, text on page 4 read, crater collapse itself was treated with curiosity and inter- est. For example, on 11 April a two page report (span- “The greatest caution must be taken when flying over ning pages 12 and 13 of JIR) documented the history of the volcano and lava flows in light aircraft; some have the Cratère Dolomieu’s many collapses. Under the title suffered damage related to dust emission or “The 100 faces of Piton de la Fournaise” the article unpredictable turbulence”. began by arguing (Dupuis and Martel-Asselin 2007): The article added that the ash was a risk for helicopter “If Piton de la Fournaise could talk, he would engines, and turbulence was of particular concern for the amuse and probably astonish the followers of his “most sensitive” craft. Here there is a dichotomy in the Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 16 of 28 Fig. 9 Placement of all words returned for the front page and front page flag tests into one of three classes (impacts or volcanic processes, normal life and perturbed life) for (a) the OVPF group, (b) the guide group and (c) the student group Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 17 of 28 a c b d o o o Fig. 10 Front pages of JIR featuring pit-crater collapse published on (a) 7 April 2007 (N 18352), (b) 11 April 2007 (N 18356), (c) 13 April 2007 (N 18358), and (d) 22 April 2007 (N 18367) Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 18 of 28 framing of the risk, as on the same day an advert appeared “The memories of the 1986 lava flow remain in all of in the Agenda section (page 59) of the paper reading: our spirits, from the youngest to the oldest one is worried about a new eruption outside of ‘L’Enclos’.” Survol du Piton de la Fournaise St-Paul In addition, a four-page-long review of the 1977 eruption Overfly Piton de la Fournaise from the ultra-light base and invasion of Piton Sainte-Rose appeared in the Sunday of Cambaie. Magazine supplement of 8 April (JIR, 8 April 2007, pages Special rate of 145 euros during the duration of the 14–17). However, the problems caused due to the closure eruption for a return trip direct to the volcano! of the island perimeter road (RN2) due to lava inundation Information and reservations: was reduced to a small (280 cm )reportinthe bottomleft Agency and telephone number redacted. corner of page 13 (JIR, 8 April 2007); and after the end of the eruption, issues regarding tourist access and sightseeing Supported by a photograph of a vent feeding an exten- dominated reports. Thus, the lava frame was one of colorful sive, braided, lava channel system the advert ran for four spectacle and sightseeing on the front page, with the consecutive days. Previously, on 12 April, a full page art- hazards being spelled out using text-only on deeper pages. icle had appeared on page 9 of JIR featuring the ultra- light flight industry for volcano tourism and over flights. The gas frame Thus, although the readership was well and soberly in- The gas problem tended to be pictured in black and formed on the hazard, there was still an element of tour- white, with images featuring people and faces rather ism and sightseeing to the frame. than the hazard itself (e.g., Fig. 12). These people were the victims of gas, such as school children and the re- The lava frame sponders attending to the victims, mainly fire and medical Thelavaframe wasdominated by spectacularphotosofin- staff. Unlike the lava frame, no preparatory, background candescent fountains feeding lava channels, flow fronts and or anecdotal information was given regarding the gas haz- ocean-entry flows (e.g., Fig. 6). Thelavatendedtodomin- ard. Explanations of the problem only appeared the day ate the photo montages and front page flags, and was asso- after the gas made a first impact (Leyral 2007a), and it was ciated with tourism and photography, the problems caused not until two days following the initial reporting of the gas to the local population being of secondary importance. hazard, on 5 April, that this hazard was featured on page These lava flows were thus portrayed as an attraction ra- 1, appearing under headline “GAS alert” and featuring a ther than a threat. For example, on 3 April the three-page heavily condensed, billowing plume (Fig. 3). There was photo montage (JIR, 3 April 2007, pages 36–38) was domi- also no community memory of such impacts, as revealed nated by spectacular color images of incandescent lava from the following passage in Leyral (2007b), channels and ocean-entry lava surrounded by sightseers, as was the front page (Fig. 3). Hence our flash tests returned “From the youngest to the oldest (people), it is memories of images such as a tourist’s “hat” and the color unbelief that dominates. ‘We have never seen that,’ is “red” (Table 2). It was only late in the eruption that the the phrase invariably repeated by the people one front-page frame for lava became less voyeuristic, with the meets in the main street.” front page of 27 April featuring an image of lava flows moving up the road into Le Tremblet, with emergency ser- As a result, the gas hazard was an unknown threat, and vices at-hand for forest fire damp down, under the headline became associated with words such as “fear”, “panic”, “wor- Lava on the road towards Le Tremblet (Fig. 11). ried” and “catastrophe”, all of which appear in the report of Deeper in the newspaper, the lava hazard was communi- Fig. 12. This 4 April report, appearing under the page 12 cated in text through description and analogy to previous headline, “A cloud of sulfur causes a wind of panic”,lead events that had impacted populations on La Réunion. For off with a paragraph that read (Leyral 2007b), example, in the precursory phase of reporting, the reader- ship had been reminded of the recent evacuations and “Around fifty adolescents affected, fourteen taken to damage inflicted on populated areas in 1977, 1986 and the hospitals of Saint-Joseph and Saint-Pierre. This is 2002 (Martel-Asselin 2007c). The experience of lava inva- the social consequence of the passage of a cloud of sion of Sainte-Philippe in 1986 was also still fresh in the volcanic gases through the town center of Saint- memory of the local population as revealed by witness Joseph early yesterday afternoon. Fortunately causing statements. For example, on 6 April the experience of more fear than harm.” 1986 was mentioned directly five times in one article alone (Leyral 2007). This article appeared with a photo Experience was thus a key factor controlling appropri- captioned, ate reporting and conveying of the gas hazard. That is, Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 19 of 28 Fig. 11 Front page of JIR featuring the lava flow threat to the village of Le Tremblet published on 27 April 2007 (N 18372) there had been no experience of gas emission and im- The ash frame pact amongst the population or the journalist; for lava The air fall problem became obvious on 4 April 2007, flows, there had been—it was a known quantity for when the advice was communicated that young children which there was experience and memory so that frame should be kept inside, and fruit and vegetables taken was an informed one that was not associated with “fear” from local allotments should be washed before con- or “panic”. All the same, advice regarding the gas and sumption (Leyral 2007c). The sole front page devoted to ash hazard was given in reports contained within the is- the air fall hazard did not appear until two days later, sues of 4 and 5 April, with further advice regarding featuring a man under an umbrella next to a bus stop health effects of sulfuric acid being provided by a lung with no other person in sight (Fig. 13). Hence, the flash specialist on 7 April. As we see next, the ash hazard was tests for this returned responses such as “bus”, “stop” framed in a similar way, not being associated with the and “umbrella” (Table 2). That the description of the spectacle and sightseeing, but instead creating worry and problem was then left to a local resident, who was uncertainty; worse “fear” and “panic”. quoted as saying “there were lots (of Pele’s hair) in the Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 20 of 28 Fig. 12 Report and imagery from page 12 of JIR published on 4 April 2007 (N 18349) illustrating the gas hazard Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 21 of 28 Fig. 13 Front page of JIR featuring the air fall hazard published on 6 April 2007 (N 18351) town center and my car was covered” (Leyral 2007c), Pele’s hair followed by ash, which makes the road embodied the problem of framing this hazard. That is, it surface particularly slippery.” was framed in terms of the victims, and not the re- sponders or decision makers. Indeed definition of, and Parallel with this was a feeling of unease among the ad-hoc responses to, the air fall hazard were spontan- resident population. For example, the lead-out para- eous and developed by those subject to the hazard. For graph of a full page article published on 6 April, example, Leyral (2007b) reported, entitled “Tremblet wakes under ash and fear”,read (Leyral 2007b): “Pedestrians are rare. Those that adventure outside don’t forget their umbrellas, not to protect themselves “An atmosphere of doom reigns over the village of from the sun but above all from the continuous rain Tremblet. After a sleepless night, people woke up of cinder. Parked cars are covered by a mixture of yesterday under volcanic ash ……… Cut off from the Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 22 of 28 world since Wednesday night, residents still live in In the same report, a figure caption read “uncertainty fear of an eruption outside of ‘L’Enclos’”. dominated for part of the afternoon until a helicopter reconnaissance revealed that this was a false alarm” Resident quotes associated with this article included, “I (Leyral et al. 2007a). During the evacuation reporting was scared, but now I am OK”, “I did not sleep all night”, was again biased towards the viewpoints of the resi- and “you know, one breathes anxiously here.” On the same dents, there being 14 statements from residents of Le day, the following headline appeared at the top of page 18, Tremblet in evacuation-related articles on 7 April, as opposed to two from the decision making authorities. In “The population split between worry and fascination” addition space set aside to reporting of the evacuation was 75% in favor of the resident population. As a result, This “fear”, “scared”, “anxious” and “worried” feeling the frame for the evacuation was very much set-up by led to descriptors such as “apocalyptic” being used, to the population themselves through publication of their cause a general atmosphere of unease and a feeling that quotes. These quotes paint a picture of a confused and this was “the end of the world”. On 7 April, for example, poorly managed operation, with little recognition of the one resident of Le Tremblet was quoted as saying, “It’s actual needs of the evacuees. The following examples not a volcano anymore; it’s a monster.” The same resi- are typical: dent went on to say, “… … … we heard by word of mouth that it was “Tonight, I prefer to stay at the gym. I do not want to necessary to evacuate” (Leyral et al. 2007a); sleep next to a ‘thing’ like that. I have my 83-year-old  “We had already prepared our things. But in the rush, father with me, he trembles. My five-year-old daughter in twominutes,wewerejustabletotakethe essentials: does not understand what is happening. She believes the dogs and a little linen” (Leyral et al. 2007a); that the house will burn.”  “My moral is at zero. I am tired. Since they closed the road, we have been isolated from the world. We The following day, the experience of Le Tremblet was have no moral support. The mayor and the police described under the headline “After hell, the desolation” pass in front of us without ever giving us news. We (Lutton 2007a). Associating a hazard with names that do not even know what will happen. The authorities convey fear, such as a monster, evil or the devil is not do not inform us” (Anon 2007f); uncommon (Galli and Nigro 1987). The monster frame  “It happenedveryquickly andbrutally” (Leyral was not necessarily appreciated, with the following opin- et al. 2007b); ion piece appearing on page 24 of the 17 April edition:  “The police went by saying ‘leave.’ But you understand Ihave a business.Later,others returned to tellus that A monster ! there was no danger……… I really left at the last I heard the other night that the eruption of Piton la (possible) moment” (Leyral et al. 2007b). Fournaise was being presented on national TV with the statement “It’s not a volcano anymore; it’s a monster.” These impressions of “lack of information”, “confu- The conclusion of this report once again makes local sion”, “rush” and “poor moral” contrasts with the picture tourism professionals bristle. Tourism, following last portrayed by the authorities who claimed that the evacu- year’s problems of shark attacks, dog baiting, and the ation had been completed (Leyral et al. 2007a): “chik” (i.e., the disease chikungunya), already gives the island a negative image in the Parisian media. “calmly and in compliance with the scheme we had planned, namely following three evacuation stages from All the same, those living in the impacted zone were the most exposed area to the least exposed area ……… genuinely scared and anxious. They thus needed re- the most sensitive zone between Citrons Galets and Le assurance, information and help. Thus the manner in Rempart was evacuated in ten minutes.” which potential evacuation was communicated and exe- cuted became extremely important. The prefecture concluded: “if it was a false alarm even better, it has shown us that the evacuation plan works very The evacuation frame well”. The next day some residents had some conciliatory The evacuation of Le Tremblet on 6 April was framed words, one evacuated resident saying (Leyral 2007), extremely negatively, as witnessed by the lead headline on 7 April which read, “The authorities were a bit rushed for a false alarm, but as they say prevention is better than a cure. Sure “Le Tremblet evacuated for nothing” it was a little panicked, but it was better to do it by Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 23 of 28 day rather than at night, that would have been not helped by a dichotomy in statements such as the situ- disastrous.” ation in Le Tremblet was “hellish” and “catastrophic”, while then claiming that the evacuation was “for nothing”. Some displayed an optimistic mentality, with one resi- Likewise the response plan was both described as “well-or- dent arguing that with all of the rain that the area ganized” and “poorly-implemented” at the same time. receives, The ocean entry frame “I don’t have any worries. Nature is too strong. She For the ocean entry, the front pages focused entirely on will quickly reclaim her rights.” the “mysteries of the deep” and in particular on the exotic fish that were floating to the surface (Table 1), Others stated that “we like our life here; the volcano with the flash tests returning “mystery” and “fish” as the doesn’t make us scared; it’s an old friend” (Lutton main impressions (Table 2). The ocean entry was thus 2007b). However, the experience had been a severe framed as an interesting curiosity—almost a coup for shock, such that a team of psychologists was deployed Réunion—for which, although the hazards were stated, on 11 April to work with the residents of Le Tremblet there was no suggestion of links with danger or risk. (Lutton 2007c). The prediction amongst the response Under the title “Strange fish make the surface” Lauret workers arriving in Le Tremblet was that the residents (2007), for example, reported that, (Lutton 2007c). “this is phenomenon that has not been described until “will support very badly a wave of tourists armed with yesterday. It could even be a first.” cameras to view the eruption. There will have to be a break in their suffering”. Likewise, the following day (Monday 10 April), a two page report under the title “The mysteries of the Abyss By 27 April the experience of the eruption and the evacu- within reach” led with (Frasson-Botton 2007): ation had become so intense, after three weeks of “worry” and “stress” that one resident stated that (Anon 2007), “Yesterday morning in St. Rose, scientists reiterated their miraculous catch of Sunday by collecting other “we were happy to live here. But now if it is possible species of dead fish that had ascended from the to sell the house and move away, I think we will leave depths and were floating on the surface of the water, with pleasure.” sometimes the species was unknown (about thirty species were collected). A remarkable side effect of Another resident described a “crisis of nerves”, adding the Fournaise (eruption), probably a first.” that “Idon’t think I have the courage to go back.” The article finishing with the statement that, By 11 April, the “new, miraculous fish” had even attracted the attention of the Natural History Museum of “It has been three weeks now that everyone has slept Paris (Graignic 2007), with the “mystery of the abysses” with one eye open.” frame continuing through 12 April. An article published on 15 April went as far as to celebrate a “discovery Feelings in Le Tremblet were thus similar to those ex- Réunionnaise.” In contrast, the economic hardships of perienced in Kalapana (Kilauea, Hawaii) where residents local fisherman, whose livelihood was at risk and to whom having undergone an intensely stressful and shocking the loss of fisheries was an extreme concern (see Part 1), experience resented the intrusion of tourists, sightseers only received attention on the first day of the “hot water” and media into their zone of personal distress; thus story (9 April). beginning to develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress However, these events were certainly not the “first”, syndrome (Weisel and Stapleton 1992). Probably, a “mysterious”, “new” or a “discovery”. During Fernandi- frame whereby a page 9 headline on 7 April suggested na’s 1995 eruption lava entered the ocean to result in the that Le Tremblet was “at the gates of hell” likely did not death of at-least 15 species of fish as reported by help. As a result, residents suggested that the evacuation McCosker et al. (1997). McCosker et al. (1997) wrote should have occurred by 5 April (Leyral 2007b), and a that, “in virile competition with feeding seabirds”, they quarter of the population had already left of their own ac- were able to capture a small sample of fish found dead cord when the evacuation order was finally implemented or dying at the (ocean) surface. These fish died not just (Leyral 2007c). Some of the evacuees then stayed where as a result of thermal effects, but also due to acoustic they were when the evacuation order was rescinded shock, dissolved chemicals, suspended sediments and (Leyral et al. 2007a;Leyral 2007). The negative frame was embolism associated with rapid ascent, so that “most of Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 24 of 28 the fish that possessed gas bladders exhibited such organ- Naccarato and Neuendorf (1998) and Neuendorf (2002), isms distended from their mouths”; some, potentially, and hence delivering a frame that was routine and con- came from as deep as 1200 m (McCosker et al. 1997). sistent in structure and format (Reese 2010). As a result, Likewise in Hawaii, during ocean entry of Mauna Loa’s the stories of the day were always in predictable posi- 1950 eruption, Finch and Macdonald (1950) noted that tions and organized in a routine hierarchy, so that the “by 17:00 (on 2 June, 19 hours after the eruption had reader would know—through experience—where to look begun) a line of steaming water extended half a mile off for most important news. Our flash tests also proved shore. In this water zone many fish were killed, to be that the front page design was also successful in framing seen drifting or washed up onshore”. The style of the volcanic hazards in a way that the key elements of the coverage of the ocean entry during 2007 thus indicates story were held in the short-term memory. The compo- excitement coupled with an ignorance regarding the nents of this frame delivery involved: process and its effects. (i) Headline placement was always at the top of the The bench page, and involved an interleaved mixture of 4 ± 2 Upon ocean entry, lava flow into water creates what has short- and medium-length words; become termed a “bench”; an extremely hazardous loca- (ii) The story-of-the day was always written out as large tion due to its instability and associated explosive activ- font (with important words being capitalized and/or ity (Mattox and Mangan 1997). Collapses not only take appearing first or last in the headline) in the center large amounts of land—and all standing on it—with it, of the page; creating a local tsunami of hot water, but also trigger (iii)A color image, usually containing a person, was lava–water interaction explosions that send bombs and always used to support the story-of-the day headline; blocks inland and, potentially, into tourist viewing sites (iv) The image dominated the front page serving as the (Johnson et al. 2000). The first bench collapse during background and/or center-piece for all other the 2007 eruption was reported on 25 April, as an aside elements. to a two page photo montage dominated by spectacular color photographs of active lava at night. Other photos From our flash tests, we find that the frame format included pictures of boats, jet skis and paddle boarders defined was extremely effective in, in the words of around the steaming water off-shore of the ocean entry. Lippmann (1922), forming a consistent picture in the As a minor addition to an article otherwise set aside to heads of the recipients regarding the volcanic hazards the on-going problems of Le Tremblet on 27 April, fur- being reported. We have thus, here, provided an analysis ther bench collapses were reported to have occurred “at framework that allows the way in which readers will re- 12h30, 16h and 16h30” on the previous day. Thus, al- ceive and perceive information, communicated by news- though bench collapse is a well-known hazard in Hawaii papers during volcanic crises, to be defined and tracked. (Johnson et al. 2000) and which has caused casualties in Unfortunately, in the case study followed here, only the past at Kilauea (Perkins 2006), the bench completely the well-known (lava flow and pit crater) hazards were lacked a hazard frame. framed well. Gas, air fall and ocean entry hazards, as well as the evacuation plans and the decision making Defining, tracking and responding to frames during a system, were very poorly framed. Having defined these volcanic emergency. Reese (2010) argues that framing frames the next question to ask is: what can the vol- is concerned with the way interests, communicators, canologist do to respond to a developing frame? The sources and culture “combine to yield coherent ways of answer is: support positive frames, while responding to understanding the world”. For Reese (2010), the success negative frames through pre-emptive measures. Mea- of framing depends on how comprehensively or com- sures will include scientific advertising (Hopkins 1923), pletely the media source organizes information, and how that reach the community exposed to the frame, and persistent the frame is through time; that is, how routine press releases (Lewis 2012)thattargetthe journalists is the format and structure of the frame. We provide building the frame. here a simple methodology to define the components of Reese’s(2010) frame for the front page of a newspaper Scientific advertising during a volcanic crisis. Our analysis of the front pages Business and industry often respond to negative frames, of 120 consecutive editions of JIR published before, dur- or take advantage of positive frames, through appropri- ing and after the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la ately designed, timed and placed adverts (Harris 2015b). Fournaise reveals that its front page was designed to be The same occurred in the cases examined here. On 10 the ideal vehicle for maximizing readership information April, the day after the fish story broke during the April delivery and recall of the event following the model of 2007 eruption, an advert appeared on the same page as Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 25 of 28 the fish story of that day by a garden depot offering as well as to better communicate evacuation plans and special prices on various live, ornamental fish such as the decision making system. guppies and goldfish. We have already cited the adverts for over-flights of the Cratère Dolomieu following the Press releases: The need for outreach efforts to journalist collapse. We also note that adverts by various insurance during a volcanic crisis companies offering coverage and banks offering loans Although Russell (1986) identified that specialist science following passage of cyclone Gamède, which caused ex- journalists generally have good scientific backgrounds, the tensive property damage across the island during 24–28 non-specialist journalist may have difficulty understanding February 2007, ran throughout our study period, having complex issues and interpreting numeric data (Voss 2002). begun to appear on 3 March, and running through Recognizing this problem, Smith et al. (2005) placed the mid-March. onus on the scientist, suggesting that poor science writing Buying advertisement space may appear unethical or couldbeimprovedifscientists “took the trouble” to com- vulgar to the scientist, but there are other means of municate effectively with the journalists. As a result, advertising such as setting up open houses, film shows, Woloshin et al. (2009) argued that scientific bodies should exhibitions, etc., and then advertising their content, loca- work harder to promote accurate translation of output into tion and times, or by offering useable editorial or review news, while making it “easier for journalists to get it right” material to a journalist. Although probably not in re- by ensuring that press releases routinely present and de- sponse to the frames highlighted here, such an approach scribe the situation. In fulfilling this need, Slovic (2000) was in fact implemented during the 2007 eruption. recommended that scientists should understand that risk Eruption-related adverts first appeared in the Agenda and uncertainty are inherently difficult to communicate, section of JIR (page 63) on 16 April. There were two. but that the media are the dominant source of risk informa- While the first advertised a temporary exhibition to be tion. Thus, Slovic (2000) argued, scientists should be pro- run at La Maison du Volcan between 21 April and 21 active in enhancing science writing by educating reporters October 2007 entitled “30 years on from the 1977 lava”; on the importance and subtleties of risk stories. Peters the second advertised showing of a film covering “all of (1995) added that, while Journalists accept entertainment the stages” of the 2 April 2007 eruption at the same as a function of mass media more readily than scientists; location. The launch of the exhibition, to mark the 30th scientists have little understanding of the journalistic need anniversary of the 1977 eruption, was supported by a to attract and fascinate readers by means of certain stylistic small piece on page 23 of the 17 April edition of JIR elements. What these findings and recommendations entitled a “special volcano evening” which would be held amount to, are (i) if a need for information by the jour- on 27 April. These adverts ran daily through 25 April. nalist is identified, (ii) the journalist should be approached, Whether chance or not, the event was a perfect and with (iii) information selected and presented in a way that timely opportunity to outreach and educate. Special sec- is useful to, and useable by, the journalist. Tracking the tions, supplements and Sunday magazines are other good frames developing during a volcanic crisis, and identifying places for scientific advertising. The Sunday Magazine thedesignofthatframe,isawaytoensurethatthe infor- (“Mag Dimanche”) of JIR was used during April 2007 to mation provided is appropriately selected and presented; an inform on volcanic processes, being used on both the approach that understands the stylistic elements of the weekends of 7–8 April and 21–22 April. The Sunday news design applied. Magazine is an 11 page supplement appearing in the mid- The formal means to outreach information to the mass dle of JIR each Sunday. It carried multiple page reviews of, mediaisthrough apress release, where Slovic(2000)recom- and background on, topical newsworthy subjects, as well mended the development of science news clearinghouses, as health, cinema, book and music reviews. On 8 April, arguing that reporters need to know how and where to the Sunday Magazine featured a four-page-long review on access relevant, knowledgeable and cooperative sources. the effects of, and response to, the 1977 effusive eruption On an agency or institutional level, this would be a of Piton de la Fournaise and its ingress into the town of press office or press officer—a point of contact that the Piton-Saint-Rose (pages 14–17). Then, on 22 April, a journalist knows and trusts to be a pertinent informa- five-page review detailed the history of exploration of tion source. In the case followed here the frame that pit craters at the Cratère Dolomieu (pages 15–19). Un- needed to be rectified was well-defined, the exact need fortunately, though, only the well-known (lava flow and for information was known and the publisher contact- pit crater collapse) hazards were targeted. Given our able, so that direct contact from the volcanologist to content analysis, follow-up measures would have done the journalist was the obvious option. In part 1 of this well to educate, through web-site postings, public pre- work, we identified the fact that reporting on Piton de sentations, and fact sheet releases, on gas, air fall and la Fournaise’s April 2007 eruption in JIR benefitted from ocean entry hazards as and when the hazards occurred, the fact that specialist science writers were involved. Better, Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 26 of 28 there was already a good relationship between the observa- Additional files tory and the journalist allowing direct and immediate com- Additional file 1: Flash Tests - Group A.xlsx: Flash test results for Group munication, and that communication route was plainly A (OVPF). (XLSX 16 kb) used, there being almost daily quotes from OVPF staff and Additional file 2: Flash Tests - Group B.xlsx: Flash test results for Group their bulletins in JIR (see Part 1). The key is, though, to B (Tourist Guides). (XLSX 61 kb) identify the need for information and provide information Additional file 3: Flash Tests - Group C.xlsx: Flash test results for Group that fills any knowledge gaps that develop. C (Students). (XLSX 111 kb) Additional file 4: Piton April 2007 - Headline Analysis.xlsx: Results of headline analysis. (XLSX 113 kb) Conclusion Generally, as a gauge for information content, the front Acknowledgements page of the JIR was always a mirror for its contents, with We are extremely grateful to all participants in the flash tests for agreeing to the frame delivered by the front page being supported participate and for consenting to use of the results. Two anonymous by the responses of the flash tests. Although, as found reviewers, and the associate editor (Ilan Kelman), provided excellent advice on how to better communicate this work and its implications. We are also in part one of this study, the quantity and quality of haz- exceedingly grateful Philippe Le Claire (Director of the JIR) for granting us ard information was excellent, the way in which it was permission for reproduction of JIR material and front pages in support of this framed was not so positive. Not surprisingly, hazards re- scientific application. This is ANR-LAVA contribution no. 3. lated to frequently experienced, and hence familiar, vol- Funding canic phenomena (lava flows and pit craters) were well- This work was funded by the Agence National de la Recherche (ANR: framed, but those relating to unfamiliar phenomena www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr) through project ANR-LAVA (ANR Program: (widespread gas effects, air fall, evacuation and ocean DS0902 2016; Project: ANR-16 CE39–0009, Link: www.agence-nationale-recherch- e.fr/?Project=ANR-16-CE39-0009). entry/bench collapse) were not. Pit crater collapse and lava flow hazards were framed using their natural colors Availability of data and materials and using clear imagery of the phenomenon, although— Raw data used here were PDF copies of the newspaper “Le Journal de L’Ile de La Réunion” (JIR). These PDFs are available (for purchase) from for lava flows in particular—there was an element of spec- https://www.payandread.fr/4DACTION/NewSwitchPublication?publicationID=18 tacle and promotion of sightseeing. Gas and ash fall haz- https://www.clicanoo.re/. Argument support taken from each PDF is given as ard became framed using images and words of the referenced. We provide here the results of our headline analysis which is given as an EXCEL spreadsheet in the electronic supporting material (Additional file 1). victims, so that it became worrying and frightening, and Also given in the electronic supporting material are the results of our flash associated with panic. As a result, the volcano became tests for group A (Additional file 2:Group A),group B(Additionalfile 3: framed as a monster and situation apocalyptic and hellish Group B) and group C (Additional file 4:Group A),with – for the sake of anonymity – all names removed. which, within the framework of SARF (Kasperson et al. 1988), amplified the risk and built fear. This probably con- Authors’ contributions tributed to the evacuation measures being framed as con- Both authors have reviewed this manuscript and contributed to its content. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. fused and pointless. In contrast, the ocean entry and bench collapse had no hazard-frame at all, and instead be- Competing interests came associated with the exotic fish that bobbed to the The authors declare that they have no competing interests. surface. Thus, this volcanic process became attenuated to the point of it not existing as a risk; but being framed sim- Publisher’sNote ply as a curiosity. This was due to the hazard being be- Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. yond the experience of the reporters. In tracking the frames apparent in the media, there is Author details an opportunity for the volcanology community to under- Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, IRD, OPGC, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, 6 Avenue Blaise Pascal, 63178 Aubière, France. Observatoire stand how people perceive volcanic hazard based on ma- Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, Institut de Physique du Globe de terial published in the mass media during a volcanic Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-75005 Paris, crisis. We can use this knowledge to act on gaps and France. Laboratoire GéoSciences Réunion, Université de La Réunion, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS, F-97744, Saint misconceptions that appear as they are published. 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Newspaper reporting of the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise, part 2: framing the hazard

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Abstract

An analysis of the front pages of 120 consecutive editions of the local newspaper for the island of La Réunion (France), “Le Journal de L’Ile de La Réunion”, published before, during and after the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise reveals that its front page is an ideal vehicle for maximizing information delivery and recall during a volcanic eruption. Supported by flash tests, and by cross-checking with a content analysis of information given within the newspaper, we find that the front page is an effective gauge for the hazardframe which,for thecaseexaminedhere, involved six volcanic hazards (pit-crater collapse, lava flows, gas, air fall, ocean entry lava flow and bench collapse), as well as the issue of evacuation. We found that crater collapse and lava flow hazards were framed using their natural colors and clear imagery of the phenomenon, tied to context-setting explanations within the newspaper. However, for lava flows in particular there was an element of spectacle and promotion of sightseeing, with photographs always featuring sightseers invariably taking photographs. After the end of the eruption reporting became almost entirely focused on tourists and sightseeing. Gas and ash fall hazard were framed using images and words of the victims, so that it became worrying and frightening, and associated with panic. As a result, the volcano itself became portrayed as a monster, and the situation for the impacted population became “apocalyptic” and “hellish”. This probably contributed to the evacuation measures being described as confused and pointless, with the morale of the impacted population suffering accordingly. The ocean entry and bench collapse had no frameatall,and became associated with the dead, exotic fish that were collected; this hazard thus being framed as an interesting curiosity rather than a volcanic hazard. The front page-tracking model followed here could guide future educative measures during volcanic crises by quickly identifying, on the basis of front page analysis, hazards that are appropriately conveyed versus those that are poorly portrayed. Responses to rectify a poor frame can include reactive scientific advertising, a route that is used commonly by businesses seeking to boost sales by taking timely advantage of a developing newspaper frame, and distribution of appropriately designed and timed press releases. Keywords: The press, Front-page, Images, Headlines, Short-term memory, Hazard-communication, Volcanic eruption Introduction which construct public representations of risk (Kasperson Through whatever mass media avenue news is received et al. 1988). The mass media thus becomes an agent by a reader, viewer or listener the message will have been through which society learns about risks, hazards and en- shaped by the communication route that the informa- vironmental disasters (Kasperson and Kasperson 1996). In tion has taken between the source and the receiver (e.g., this sense, the newspaper is one mass media outlet that Rosten 1937; Cater 1959; Cohen 1963). Following the so- can act as a filter that sits at the center of a communica- cial amplification of risk framework, the mass media tion system and operates to shape the perception of a haz- plays a pivotal role as a “station” for relaying “signals” ard amongst the readership. Through placement, selection (of story, data and source), exaggeration, omission and preference the newspaper places bias, slant and spin into * Correspondence: andrew.harris@uca.fr the information received (Harris 2015a) thereby setting an Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, IRD, OPGC, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, 6 Avenue Blaise Pascal, 63178 Aubière, France Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 2 of 28 agenda (McCombs 2014) and framing the news (Reese (Staudacher et al. 2008), and leaving a deep and lasting im- et al. 2010). McCombs (2014) argued, for example, that pression in the minds of the impacted population (Payet newspapers, 2007). Le Journal de L’Ile de La Réunion (JIR) is one of the two main island newspapers, and between Febru- “communicate a host of cues about the relative ary and May of 2007 hazard-related information ap- salience of the topics on their daily agenda. The lead peared on the front pages of the JIR on 34 out of the story on page 1, front page versus inside page, the size 120 publication days and accounted for 21.94 m of of the headline, and even the length of the story all newspaper space (see part 1 of this study Harris & communicate the salience of topics.” Villeneuve, 2018). As we argue in Part 1, the opportunity to communicate, and thereby also educate on, volcanic These cues are laid out as part of the newspaper de- hazard was thus maximized. Here we carry out a content sign and will influence what the readership thinks about analysis of this published information, focusing on the and how they think about it (McCombs and Shaw 1972; format of the messages displayed on the front page of the Vu et al. 2014). Cohen (1963), for example, concluded JIR, to assess the way in which that information was that in providing such cues the press, framed. This information, following the social amplification of risk framework (SARF) of Kasperson et al. (1988), and as “may not be successful much of the time in telling its evolved by Kasperson (1992), Kasperson and Kasperson readers what to think, but is stunningly successful in (1996)and Kaspersonetal. (2003), will inform on how the telling its readers what to think about.” risk or hazard is perceived by the receiver (i.e., the readership) and whether or not the risk is amplified or The public can then use such cues to organize their attenuated. The hazard frame during a volcanic crisis thus own agendas and to decide which topics are important needs to be defined and tracked if we are to understand (McCombs 2014). Bogart (1955) thus argued that “the how information is received and perceived by newspaper mass media provide a natural source of conversational (and other mass media) readerships and, most importantly, material,” with the content providing an “array of col- how we can better communicate the desired message to lective images” that can be “introduced into conversa- the wider population during a volcanic emergency. tion.” That is, the way in which the information is given “frames” the event, influencing the perception of that Framing volcanic hazard event amongst the recipient population (Reese et al. Rowe et al. (2000) argued that, while the quantity of 2010). In hazard communication and education it is fun- coverage of hazards will be a major influence on risk damental that we define the components of such frames perception amongst an incident population, the way in and recognize the message thereby communicated so as which the media present the hazard information will to allow an understanding of the readership’s perception also influence reader perceptions. That is, the media will of, for example, a volcanic eruption impacting their report the hazard in such a way so as to encourage a community. For example, how will the reader viewing certain perception of the event (e.g., Dawson and Lyons the three front pages of Figs. 1, 2 and 3—all of which 2003; Washer 2004; Wallis and Nerlich 2005; Höijer were published in the local newspaper that serves the Island et al. 2006). Thus, in the context of content analysis, of Réunion during the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la framing becomes defined as the presentation of informa- Fournaise—view the volcanologist, volcanology and the on- tion in such a way that a particular interpretation, view going volcanic emergency? or evaluation of an event is promoted (Entman 2004). Our aim here is thus to assess the effectiveness of This is the definition of “frame” and “framing” applied newspaper design in framing risk, hazard and response dur- here, where information regarding the volcanic hazard ing a volcanic eruption, using the April 2007 eruption of passes through a series of filters that mean that informa- Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion, France) as our case tion is organized and described (Kahneman and Tversky study. This was the largest historical eruption of Piton de la 1984) in a way so as to promote a particular interpret- Fournaise (Staudacher et al. 2009), with a short initial phase ation (Harris 2015a). which began on 30–31 March 2007 being followed by a The front page layout of a newspaper, for example, is main phase that began on 2 April. While heavy tephra fall carefully designed to display a clear message that makes a affected an area to the SE of the vent, gas effects were felt person want to buy the newspaper, while giving the reader as far away as Mauritius (220 km to the NNE) and the vil- something to think about (Rowe et al. 2000). In providing lage of Le Tremblet was evacuated (see Part 1 of this study). cues through pictures and colors, plus through delivery of The eruption continued until 1 May 2007, cutting the a few, large, bold, evocative words in the headlines, news- island perimeter road, causing two major collapses of paper front pages are extremely effective in delivering an the Dolomieu Crater, setting up a major ocean entry immediate message (Naccarato and Neuendorf 1998); Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 3 of 28 Fig. 1 Front page of JIR on 15 April 2007 (N 18360) featuring a potential hazard (OVNI is French for Unidentified Flying Object—“UFO”) not related to the natural hazard considered here, where this newspaper was published on day 13 of Piton de la Fournaise’s April 2007 eruption thereby framing the featured event (Reese 2010)and down- the featured focus being an eye-catching distraction playing–through selecting and highlighting certain events that will likely leave a lasting impression in the viewer’s over others (Entman 2004)–another (c.f. Figs. 1, 2 and 3). It mind. In Fig. 2, the eruption is a secondary frame is quite clear, for example, how the selection and use of which is easily missed—being only given in text images in the examples of Figs. 1, 2 and 3—all of which above a primary frame which is framed in image and were published during the April 2007 eruption of Piton de text and which dominates the page. Again, both the la Fournaise—frame the natural hazard. In the case of text and imagery of the featured focus will likely Fig. 1 the event in which we are interested in commu- dominant the viewer’s attention. In Fig. 3,the nicating (the volcanic eruption and its hazard) has no volcanic hazard becomes the primary frame. In all presence and thereby goes unnoticed in spite of con- cases, the primary frame has been set up through tinued impact on communities in the SE of the island; design. Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 4 of 28 Fig. 2 Front page of JIR on 31 March 2007 (N 18345). The onset of eruptive activity is announced as a front page header (top-right text box which reads “Piton de la Fournaise in eruption since last evening”) with the reader being referred to the internal, page 5, report. However, the main headline and image is not related to the onset of the eruption, and dominates the reader’s attention Designing the news page and the way in which an event is framed. In terms It is well-known that the front page of a newspaper pro- of delivering effective text messages as headlines, a num- vides an impression which is “immediate and determin- ber of short-term memory recall issues are key: ant” on the reader, and needs to “excite the curiosity” of the reader (Martin-Lagardette 2009), with the front page  Theme-recall is better for phonemically similar lists imagery forming a “picture” in the “heads” of the readers (Wickelgren 1965); but (Lippmann 1922) regarding the days newsworthy topics.  Greater error will occur in retrieval of the exact Thus, the wording of headlines, imagery used on, and words in correct order if words in a list are layout of, the front page require careful consideration if phonemically similar (Baddeley 1968); we want to understand the message being communi-  Recall will diminish with word length (Baddeley cated regarding topics presented on the newspaper front et al. 1975; Baddeley 2012); Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 5 of 28 Fig. 3 Front page of JIR on 5 April 2007 (N 18350) three days after the eruption began and at the height of gas and tephra emission Middle-length words are recalled worse when they  Repetition and familiarity enhances ability to memorize are followed by long-words than when they are a word list (Ebbinghaus 1885;Tulving 1985). followed by short-words (Campoy 2008); Word length effects are worse for read than spoken Baddeley et al. (1975)arguedthatmemoryspanis words, and are also worse for words at the end of a equivalent to the number of words that can be read in list than at the beginning (Neath and Nairne 1995); two seconds, where extensive testing has proved that 7 Words at the beginning and end of a list are ±2 “chunks” of information can be held in the short- remembered better than words in the middle term memory (see Cowan (2000) for thorough review). (Glanzer and Cunitz 1966) All of this leads to the conclusion that the most effect- A familiar proverb matched with an appropriate ive headline delivery is achieved with a short (7 ± 2 semantic association activates memory more word)stringofshort,popular,familiarwords,ofinter- effectively than an unfamiliar proverb (Della Sala leaved middle and short length words, with the most et al. 2010); important words appearing at the beginning and end. Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 6 of 28 Thus, the advice in most journalism textbooks is to (i) extremely effective in focusing the audience on the key never use a long word, when a short word will do; (ii) if message (e.g. Duarte 2008; Dirkson 2012; Reynolds 2014). it is possible to cut out a word, then cut it out; and (iii) Again, use of bold and color can be seen in setting up the never use foreign, scientific or jargonized words when an headline hierarchy of Fig. 4. everyday equivalent is available (Harcup 2009). Atkinson It is also well-known that human-beings have a “vast (2011) adds two rules when writing a headline: (i) write memory” for pictures (Standing et al. 1972; Standing concise sentences with a subject and a verb in active voice, 1973), so that image-based messages can be much more and (ii) be clear, direct, specific and conversational. We memorable than texturally or verbally delivered mes- see this put into play in the four headlines of Fig. 4 where sages (Paivio and Caspo 1973). Effective message deliv- the length of the headlines is 6 ± 3 words, word lengths ery can thus be achieved through just a momentary are generally short, involve a mixture of short- and glance at an image (Standing et al. 1972), with images medium-length words which are simple and familiar, with containing a concealed object (or obscured object) being the most important words being placed first and last in just as effective for mnemonic purposes as one in which each headline. In short, the design of each slogan will all objects are pictured, although the latter is certainly a maximize the chance of short-term memory storage of much more vivid communication means (Neisser and Kerr most of the headline. 1973). Use of appropriate imagery is also an effective com- In addition, messages are more quickly ingested if deliv- munication device to enhance learning (Dutrow 2007). ered in easy-to-read fonts, with display of selected words Carney and Levin (2002) thus argued that “whether ancient in uppercase, bold, larger size and/or color font being cave painting or computer screen icon, pictures are part of Fig. 4 Front page of JIR on 3 March 2007 (N 18317) illustrating the perfect format for headline writing and front page layout if recall using the short-term memory is to be maximized. The newspaper was devoted to follow-up of the passage of cyclone Gamède which passed within 250 km of the island of La Réunion on 24 February 2007, and then again on 27–28 February 2007; the front page header reading “The cyclones which have marked the history of La Réunion”. The front page spread and imagery is devoted to the “mysterious skeletons” which were unearthed due to coastal erosion during the passage of Gamède Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 7 of 28 the human experience,” so that “carefully constructed illus- dominates the front page with the primary (largest trations” are “effective text adjuncts” in message delivery. font) headline inset. Although pictures are more memorable than words, to achieve ultimate memory recall, pictures and words The text of all front page headlines were recorded, the should be used together (Mayer and Anderson 1992). type of hazard to which they referred assigned a class This especially applies to those with little knowledge of (following the coding system laid out in part 1), and the the theme being delivered. Mayer and Syms (1994), for theme and dominant color of each image noted. The example, found that. number of words in each headline, and the number of letters in each word, were also recorded, and images “Inexperienced students were better able to transfer assigned a binary code depending on whether people or what they had learned about a scientific system when faces were present (1) or not (0). Internal articles relat- visual and verbal explanations were presented ing to volcanic activity were processed following the concurrently than when visual and verbal methodology laid out in part 1 of this work. explanations were separated.” We then carried out a “flash test” to assess the effect of the front page information content and design on the As a result Naccarato and Neuendorf (1998) identified short term memory of the casual observer. The test the four components of a “perfect” advertisement, this followed the format of the short-term memory tests of being a presentation format that maximizes readership Baddeley et al. (1975) whereby ten front pages on which information delivery, attractiveness and recall through the volcano and its activity was featured as the main appropriately mixing text and imagery. These four com- image and headline were displayed for 1.5 s. Between ponents are (Neuendorf 2002): each display, subjects were given nine seconds to write down those words that entered their head, before being 1. Headline placement at top; given a five second stop cue, and then a five second 2. Sub-elements in large, bold fonts; pause during which a black screen was displayed. The 3. Use of color; with next page was then displayed. The second test involved 4. The subject being visually apparent. the display of only the front page flags. The test was the same, except that 11 front page flags were displayed, and In addition, Martin-Lagardette (2009) recommends, the subjects were given just four seconds to write down when considering imagery for inclusion on the front all words they could remember from the text in any se- page of a newspaper, a preference for images that in- quence. Finally, as a control, a front page on which the clude faces or people. We can again see these design in- volcano was featured only as a front page flag, and one fluences being applied in the front page example of Fig. where no volcanic information was given, were dis- 4. Thus, the agenda laid out in words and pictures in played. The tests were applied to three groups, two with prominent newspaper positions will be a powerful in- knowledge of the volcano and its activity, and who were fluence in focusing public opinion on particular themes, regular visitors to active sites, and one with no such ex- issues or viewpoints (e.g., Katzman 1972;Morris and perience. The two experienced groups were all 19 staff Peng 1994;Roweet al. 2000). The front page design, members (research, operations, technical, administrative and the frame this creates, thus needs to be considered and non-permanent scientific members) of the Piton de in any content analysis aimed at understanding the ef- la Fournaise Volcano Observatory (OVPF), plus 52 fect of the news format on readership perceptions of a tourist-guide professionals attending a training program natural hazard. for guided visits to active sites during eruptions. The inex- perienced group was 24 third year geography students at Method l’Université de La Réunion (St. Denis). Words recorded in All editions of JIR published during March, April and each test were then placed into one of three classes: im- May 2007 were checked for content regarding activity pacts or volcanic processes, normal life and perturbed life. at Piton de la Fournaise. All front page articles relating to volcanic activity were then classified into one of Results two groups: A total of 23 front page articles devoted to volcanic ac- tivity (13 front page flags and 10 front page spreads) Front page flags (FP-F): that is, text boxes at the top appeared between February and May 2007, of which 16 or sides of the front page pointing readers to the appeared during April (Table 1). The average number most newsworthy stories inside the newspaper. of words appearing in front page headlines relating to Front page spread (FP-S): this being the “story-of- volcanic activity was 5 ± 2, with a mode and median of the-day” featuring a large color photograph that four. This compares with 4 ± 2 for all front page Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 8 of 28 Table 1 Headline analysis of front page flags (FP-F) and spreads (FP-S) relating to activity at Piton de la Fournaise during March, April and May 2007 Date Type Text: French (with English translation) Hazard Text Theme Picture Theme 27 FP-F Volcan en vigilance et séisme à Saint-Denis Seismic volcano/vigilance/seismic/ NO PICTURE March (Volcano under surveillance and earthquake at Saint-Denis) Saint-Denis 31 FP-F Le Piton de la Fournaise en éruption depuis hier soir Eruption Piton/eruption/yesterday NO PICTURE March (Piton de la Fournaise in eruption since yesterday evening) 1 April FP-F Une autre éruption en vue (Another eruption on the horizon) Eruption eruption explosion/ejecta 3 April FP-S De la route à la mer (On the road to the sea) Lava road/sea lava/responders/cameras/ sightseers 4 April FP-F NUAGE DE GAZ SUR ST-JOSEPH: Une cinquantaine Gas cloud/gas/toxic NO PICTURE d’élèves intoxiqués (GAS CLOUD OVER ST-JOSEPH): Around 50 students intoxicated 4 April FP-S LE VOLCAN DEVIENT FOU (THE VOLCANO'S GONE MAD) Lava volcano/mad lava/fire/orange/sightseer 5 April FP-F Le Tremblet se prépare à évacuer (Le Tremblet prepares Evacuation Le Tremblet/evacuate NO PICTURE to evacuate) 5 April FP-S Alerte aux GAZ (GAS alert) Gas alert/gas cloud/white/lava/orange 6 April FP-S Le Tremblet sous les cendres (Le Tremblet under the ash) Ash Le Tremblet/ash people/cars/ash/road/umbrella 7 April FP-S Le volcan s’effondre (The volcano collapses) Collapse volcano/collapse crater/grey/black 8 April FP-F Volcan à grand spectacle (The volcano big show) Eruption volcano/show NO PICTURE 9 April FP-F Sainte-Rose: de drôles de poissons repêchés au Ocean Sainte-Rose/fish fish/orange/bucket large de l’éruption (Sainte-Rose: the funny fish fished Entry up at the height of the eruption) 9 April FP-S Le Dolomieu après le chaos (The Dolomieu after the chaos) Collapse Dolomieu/chaos brown/steam/crater/ash 10 April FP-F Le volcan livre les mystères des abysses (The volcano Ocean volcano/mystery/abyss lava/orange delivers the mysteries of the deep) Entry 11 April FP-S Le nouveau visage du volcan (The new face of the volcano) Collapse face/volcano crater/gray/sightseer/camera 13 April FP-S Hier 15h05 (Yesterday 15h05) Collapse yesterday brown/plume/volcano 22 April FP-S Les secrets de la Soufrière (The secrets of the Soufrière) Collapse secret/La Soufrière grey/crater/people 27 April FP-S La lave en route vers le Tremblet (Lava on the road Lava lava/Le Tremblet lava/orange/road/fire engines/ towards Le Tremblet) village 3 May FP-F Une des plus grosses éruptions du volcan (One of the Eruption big/eruption/volcano lava/orange biggest eruptions of the volcano) 5 May FP-F Quatre points de vue ouverts ce matin (Four viewing Eruption four/viewing/open lava/plume/white/black/green points open this morning) 6 May FP-F Volcan: 135 euros pour avoir vu les coulées Lava volcano/135 €/view/lava tourists/barrier/lava/black de trop près! (Volcano: 135 euro to have seen the lava flows close up) 13 May FP-F Le sommet s’effondre à nouveau (The summit Collapse summit/collapse/again trees/brown/cone/yellow/lava/ collapses again) black/tourists 26 May FP-F Coulées du Grand-Brûlé: pas de route avant août Lava lava/Grand-Brûlé/road/ NO PICTURE (Lava flows of the Grand-Brûlé: no road before August) August headlines appearing over the 120 days of the study three moderate-length (7–8 letter) words separated period, with a range of two to nine, a median of four, by three short (1–2 letter) words, making it a and a mode of three. perfectly-sized phrase for ease of recall. In terms of design, all front page formats followed the 2. A sub-element involving three, short, simple words model of Fig. 4. The example of Fig. 3 illustrates adher- (Alert to GAS) in a large, bold font, with the hazard ence to this format by the newspaper on a day when the (Gas) being capitalized. volcano featured as the front-page spread: 3. Effective use of color for the main image, and a simple white font on a black background for the 1. Headline placement at top reading “Le Tremblet front page flag, plus red for the pointer to the prepares itself to evacuate”, which in French is internal page reporting; Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 9 of 28 4. The image expressing the subject takes up 83% of When associated with hazardous situations this involved the front page. firemen, policemen, civil protection officials or coast- guards; meaning that in each case a responder was pic- If we examine the front page examples given in tured protecting structures, responding to crime, assessing Figs. 5 and 6, we see an identical design in terms of a hazard, or rescuing people. Note, for example, that the word and imagery use and layout. Given the recommen- main images of Figs. 5 and 7 include people, with Fig. 5 in- dation of Martin-Lagardette (2009) regarding inclusion of cluding a policeman (Gendarmerie)—even if he is in the people or faces in front page images, we also checked all second row and taking a photograph. front-page spread images for such a preference. Of 117 front pages examined over the four month study period, a What volcanic hazards did the front page focus on? face or a person featured in 91 of them. That is, 78% of By number of front pages carrying volcanic hazard as the the front pages featured a person carrying out an action. main theme, the collapse events of the Cratère Dolomieu Fig. 5 Front page of JIR on 3 April 2007 (N 18348). The onset of eruptive activity is announced with the headline “From the road to the sea”, with the reader being referred to an internal report, plus a four page photo montage (p. 35–38) Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 10 of 28 Fig. 6 Front page of JIR published on 4 April 2007 (N 18349). A visitor watches lava entering the eruption under the title “the volcano’sgone mad” featured most highly, being the main theme of six of the Thus, in terms of word repetition, the material damage front page articles. Next was lava (five front page appear- (to the road) caused by lava ingress and the need for ances), followed by gas and ocean entry hazards (two appear- evacuation (of Le Tremblet) were the most important is- ances), with seismic, ash and evacuation themes featuring on sues. These were texturally linked with the generic haz- the front page just once (Table 1). However, if we complete a ard due to the volcano or the eruption, rather than word count on all words appearing in all front page head- specific hazards such as lava flow, air fall or gas. In lines of Table 1, weinstead havethefollowing ranking: terms of individual hazard, lava + flow was the most frequently used (three occurrences), followed by gas 1. Volcano (eight occurrences); and collapse (both with two occurrences), and then 2. Eruption (four occurrences); seismic, ash and sea each with one occurrence. 3. Le Tremblet (three occurrences); In terms of the dominant theme of the front page, this 4. Road (three occurrences). began with lava and the crossing of the road and ocean Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 11 of 28 Fig. 7 Front page of JIR on 9 April (N 18854) featuring the collapse of the Cratère Dolomieu under the title “The Dolomieu after the chaos”. This was also the first time (in 2007) that the Ocean Entry made the front page, and is apparent as a front page flag entitled “Sainte-Rose: funny fish fished-up at the height of the eruption” entry on 3 and 4 April, respectively. Focus then switched activity type until 7 April, when the focus became dis- to gas and air fall on 5 and 6 April, respectively, be- tracted by the collapse of the Dolomieu; the “hazard- fore becoming entirely focused on the collapse of the of-the-day” being demoted to an (often-poorly framed) Dolomieu (on 7,9,11, 13 and 22April). Thiswas in front page flag (e.g., Fig. 7). spite of the fact that the main collapse occurred on 6– 7 April, but ocean entry and lava flow continued Words and images throughout the eruption. The threat of lava flow inva- In terms of the words and imagery associated with the sion to Le Tremblet only became a focus again on the eruption we find the following commonalities: final front page that featured the eruption, that of 27 April, when the eruption had more-or-less ended.  Lava was associated with the color orange during Thus, the reporting of hazard followed the primary the eruption, and black after it; the collapse was Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 12 of 28 framed in gray and the gas plume in white (c.f. better familiarity with the volcano and its products Figs. 3, 5 and 7); amongst the former two groups than the latter, with fumes With one exception, people were always pictured being the association of the students with the plume. taking photographs. Note that all 11 people in the The OVPF staff, guide and student groups respectively front page image of Fig. 5 are taking a picture; as used 235, 251 and 216 different words to describe the already noted this even includes the ten front pages displayed. However, imagery and headline responder—even the scientist-in-charge of OVPF words failed to conjure up feelings of risk, hazard or loss, was pictured taking a picture when he appeared in instead they evoked reactions such as “red”, “hat”, “sea”, the front page image of 11 April 2007; “bus stop”, “new” and “face”, the only hazard-relevant word With one exception, people appearing in recorded being “chaos” (Table 2). In the case of “hat”,this eruption imagery were always sightseers and was due to the silhouette of a sightseer being prominent on tourists (e.g., Fig. 6); the front page of the 4 April edition of JIR (Fig. 6). Words and pictures associated with ocean effects For the flash tests completed for the front page flags, focused on “fish”, “mystery” and the “abyss”,with the all three groups retained 3 ± 1 words, and all three groups ocean entry being framed in such a way three times recorded 56 different words. There was a weak positive on the front page as a flag (Table 1). A good example correlation (R = 0.6) between the number of words in the of this frame is the example of Fig. 7,which text and the number of different words returned by all frames the ocean effects with a picture of a dead participants. All words in the text were returned only for exotic-looking fish against a neutral background cases less than six words in length. We recorded retention which, although being the bottom of a sample beaker, of hazard and risk words in the first three cases (Table 3); has a first-glance resemblance of a frying pan; thereafter words such as “show”, “fish”, “mystery”, “open” Keywords used changed in time from and “view” dominated. When, given the front page of 31 ○ “vigilance” through March (Fig. 2), no respondent noticed that the eruption ○ “toxic”, “mad”, “evacuate”, “alert” and “chaos”,to had begun—as announced by a front page flag in the top- ○ “show”, “mystery”, “new face”, “secret”, “open” left corner of the page. and “view”. If we examine the class of word retained from flash test results for both the headline and front page flag, we find The event-frame thus evolved from one of alert to one that the statistics are again identical for all three groups of show; attracting sightseers who took photographs (Fig. 9). Although words associated with volcanic hazards from a close distance, with the time-frame invariably be- represented up to 60% of the words by type; typically less ing “yesterday” (Table 1). than 11% were words associated with a perturbed life. In fact, for the text boxes, around 60% of the words were as- Flash tests sociated with a normal life (Fig. 9). Hence, the per- Results of our content analysis were borne out by those ception of the event was not one of alarm, but of the flash tests. Flash tests completed using the front instead the imagery and text used framed the event pages revealed that imagery and headline words used as non-risky and safe; even approachable and exciting. reflected the range of hazards quite evenly, with all haz- ards being amongst the top ten most frequent responses Discussion for all groups (Fig. 8). In fact, we see that the distribu- Because of the excellent design of the front page of JIR in tions of Fig. 8 are consistent with the top three words terms of maximizing information delivery to the short- recorded from the front page tests being the same for term memory, it is important to understand what message each group. These were: was likely received by the readership and how that framed each volcanic process and its associated hazard. We here 1. Volcano (accounting for 9–10% of all words discuss what that message was, and search reports deeper recorded in all three cases); in the newspaper to understand if this message was sup- 2. Collapse (5–6%); and ported by the detailed reporting within the body of the 3. Lava (4–6%). newspaper. We then finish by exploring what were the effective elements of the framing process, so as to provide After that, all other words recorded were the same— guidelines as to how the volcanologist can define, track with the exception of “fumes”, which was only recorded and respond to frames in the mass media. by the student group. Interestingly, the OVPF and guide groups both had “Dolomieu” and “flow” as the 4th and The frames 5th most commonly recorded words, whereas the student Our content analysis shows that only the well-known group had “road” and “fumes”. This no doubt reflects (pit crater and lava flow) hazards were framed in a way Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 13 of 28 Fig. 8 (See legend on next page.) Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 14 of 28 (See figure on previous page.) Fig. 8 Top ten words recorded across all ten front page tests by (a) the OVPF group, (b) the guide group and (c) the student group. Results are given as percentages of the total number of words recorded, this being 575, 1436 and 688 for the three groups, respectively. Actual number of times each word was recorded is given at the head of each bar. Original language is used (i.e. actual words shown) where these are: volcan = volcano; effondrement = collapse; lave = lava; coulee = flow; cendre = ash; cratere = crater; gaz = gas; route = road; panache = plume; mer = ocean; fumes = fumes that provided effective hazard communication that could 1. That of 7 April 2007 (Fig. 10a) was entitled “the achieve the disaster managers goal, that being to educate volcano collapses”; featuring an image of the crater the population through reporting in the mass media (e.g., (Table 1), that was recalled as “volcano”, “collapse” Coppola 2015). Instead, gas, air fall and ocean entry haz- and “crater” by the flash tests (Table 2). ards, as well as evacuation plans and the functioning of 2. That of 11 April 2007 (Fig. 10b) was entitled “the new decision making system were poorly framed, thereby face of the volcano”; it featured a man taking a picture failing as an educative measure. Instead, they served to of the crater (Table 1), who four members of the OVPF further engender a frame of entertainment, uncertainty, staff recognized as being Thomas Staudacher (Table 2), fear, panic and failure. the director of OVPF at the time of the eruption. 3. That of 13 April 2007 (Fig. 10c) was simply labeled The pit-crater collapse frame “yesterday 15h05”; giving an image of the brown The front page representation of pit-crater collapse is plume resulting from the collapse (Table 1), that well-expressed by the JIR front page spread of 9 April was recalled as “cinder”, “plume” and “yesterday” by 2007 (Fig. 7). Here we see a sober, daytime image of the the flash tests (Table 2). summit pit resulting from the 8 April collapse overlain 4. The front page spread of 22 April 2007 led of the with a headline comprising five, short words: “The Dolo- Sunday edition of the JIR (Fig. 10d) and, being the mieu after the chaos”. Here, the word “chaos” is used for advertisement for a review piece on “seven special “collapse”, with collapse being used in all later headlines. pages” devoted to pit crater formation at the The four other front page spreads pertaining to summit Cratère Dolomieu was evocatively entitled “the collapse were equally sober: secrets of La Soufrière.” Table 2 Results of front page flash tests, giving the number of words recorded by the OVPF group Run Date Headline (see Table 1 for translation Theme Average No. No Diff Responses with frequency > 3 of headlines) (English translation in parentheses) 1 03/04/2007 De la route à la mer (Fig. 5) Lava 3.4 ± 1.3 62 26 route (9); lave (7); volcan (7); mer (4); rouge (4) (road, lava, volcano, sea, red) 2 04/04/2007 LE VOLCAN DEVIENT FOU (Fig. 6) Lava 3.5 ± 1.1 62 25 volcan (11); chapeau (7); feu (6); fou (5); nuit (5); rouge (4) (volcano, hat, fire, mad, night, red) 3 05/04/2007 Alerte aux GAZ (Fig. 3) Gas 3.6 ± 0.9 65 25 gaz (14); mer (11); fumée (6); alerte (4); coulée (4); volcan (4) (gas, sea, smoking, alert, flow, volcano) 4 06/04/2007 Le Tremblet sous les cendres (Fig. 12) Ash 2.9 ± 1.3 55 23 cendres (10); Tremblet (9); parapluie (6); Bus + arête (4) (ash, Tremblet (the village of), umbrella, bus + stop) 5 07/04/2007 Le volcan s’effondre (Fig. 9a) Collapse 3.1 ± 1.0 56 20 effondrement (14); volcan (10); cratère (4); Dolomieu (4) (collapse, volcano, crater, Dolomieu–the crater of) 6 09/04/2007 Le Dolomieu après le chaos (Fig. 7) Collapse 2.9 ± 1.3 54 22 Dolomieu (12); chaos (7); après (4); cratère (4); effondrement (4) (Dolomieu, chaos, after, crater, collapse) 7 11/04/2007 Le nouveau visage du volcan (Fig. 10b) Collapse 3.3 ± 1.2 59 24 cratère (7); volcan (7); nouveau (5); visage (5); Thomas Staudacher (4) (crater, volcano, new, face, Thomas Staudacher–Scientist-In-Charge of OVPF) 8 13/04/2007 Hier 15 h05 (Fig. 10c) Collapse 3.3 ± 0.9 56 24 volcan (9); panache (7); cendre (6); hier (6) (volcano, plume, ash, yesterday) 9 22/04/2007 Les secrets de la Soufrière (Fig. 10d) Collapse 3.1 ± 1.3 56 25 Soufrière (11); secret (4) (Soufrière, secret) 10 27/04/2007 La lave en route vers le Tremblet (Fig. 11) Lava 3.4 ± 1.3 61 20 lave (12); Tremblet (10); coulée (9); route (6); rouge (4) (lava, Tremblet (the village of), flow, road, red) Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 15 of 28 Table 3 Results of front page flag flash tests, giving the number of words recorded by the OVPF group. See Table 1 for translation of headlines Run Date Headline Theme Average No. Words No Diff Responses with frequency > 3 (English translation in parentheses) 1 27/03/2007 Volcan en vigilance et séisme à Earthquake 2.7 ± 1.0 8 48 volcan (15); vigilance (14); séisme (7) Saint-Denis (volcano, watch (as in hurricane watch, for example), earthquake) 2 04/04/2007 NUAGE DE GAZ SUR ST-JOSEPH: Gas 2.4 ± 0.6 10 43 cinquantaine (11); élèves (8); intoxiqué (7); Une cinquantaine d’élèves intoxiqués gaz (4) (around 50, pupils, intoxicated, gas) 3 05/04/2007 Le Tremblet se prépare à évacuer Evacuation 2.7 ± 0.8 6 49 Tremblet (17); évacuation (13); prépare (9) (Tremblet–the village of, evacuation, perpares) 4 08/04/2007 Volcan à grand spectacle Eruption 2.6 ± 0.7 4 46 Grand (10); spectacle (16); volcan (16) (Big, show, volcano) 5 09/04/2007 Sainte-Rose: de drôles de poissons Ocean Entry 2.9 ± 0.8 10 52 poisson (12); St. Rose (12) drôle (6) (Fish, St. repêchés au large de l’éruption Rose–the town of, funny) 6 10/04/2007 Le volcan livre les mystères des Ocean Entry 2.6 ± 0.6 7 46 volcan (17); mystère (10); livre (8); abysses (7) abysses (Volcano, mystery, delivers, abyss) 7 03/05/2007 Une des plus grosses éruptions Eruption 2.7 ± 1.0 7 49 grosse (15); éruption (12) plus (6); volcan (5) du volcan (big, eruption, prefix for the biggest (plus grosse = the biggest), volcano) 8 05/05/2007 Quatre points de vue ouverts Eruption 3.1 ± 1.6 7 56 ouvert (12); point (11); quatre (8); vue (8); ce matin matin (5) (open, point, four, view, morning) 9 06/05/2007 Volcan: 135 euros pour avoir vu Lava 2.9 ± 0.9 11 53 135 (16); € (14); volcan (8); près (6); coulée (4) les coulées de trop près! (135, volcano, near, lava) 10 13/05/2007 Le sommet s’effondre à nouveau collapse 2.3 ± 0.7 5 42 effondre (13); sommet (13); nouveau (9) (collapse, summit, new) 11 26/05/2007 Coulées du Grand-Brûlé: pas de Lava 2.7 ± 1.0 9 48 coulée (10); Brulée (9); Grande (8); route (7); route avant août aout (5); pas (4) (flow, burnt–although this is associated with the place name, Le Grande Breulée ... hence the next word–Grande, road, August, not). People were rarely included in imagery of summit col- events. The only ones to have been taken by lapse, with a person appearing in only one of the four surprise by the summit collapse which began on front-page spread images that appeared during April 2007. Friday are the scientists.” In terms of internal reporting, the risk of crater rim in- stabilities and collapse was well-known, having already been However, this frame changed for the second collapse stressed in a 29 March 2007 report by Martel-Asselin event. Instead this event was described as a “menace”, (2007a). On 4 April, a page 11 report focused on the poten- being announced with the page 10 headline, tial of summit collapse, quoting OVPF staff as saying “the earthquakes are probably precursory signs of a collapse ATTENTION, DANGER! beneath the summit zone” (Martel-Asselin 2007b). Thus, The Bory Crater takes his turn to threaten. this was a relatively well-known hazard and an event for which the readership was well prepared. Collapses also became associated with ash plume haz- However, possibly because of the distance of Cratère ard, with VAAC and Metéo France air-space warnings Dolomieu’s summit from populated areas and because being reported after both the 3 and 12 April collapses. the crater area is a major tourist attraction, the pit- On 17 April, text on page 4 read, crater collapse itself was treated with curiosity and inter- est. For example, on 11 April a two page report (span- “The greatest caution must be taken when flying over ning pages 12 and 13 of JIR) documented the history of the volcano and lava flows in light aircraft; some have the Cratère Dolomieu’s many collapses. Under the title suffered damage related to dust emission or “The 100 faces of Piton de la Fournaise” the article unpredictable turbulence”. began by arguing (Dupuis and Martel-Asselin 2007): The article added that the ash was a risk for helicopter “If Piton de la Fournaise could talk, he would engines, and turbulence was of particular concern for the amuse and probably astonish the followers of his “most sensitive” craft. Here there is a dichotomy in the Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 16 of 28 Fig. 9 Placement of all words returned for the front page and front page flag tests into one of three classes (impacts or volcanic processes, normal life and perturbed life) for (a) the OVPF group, (b) the guide group and (c) the student group Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 17 of 28 a c b d o o o Fig. 10 Front pages of JIR featuring pit-crater collapse published on (a) 7 April 2007 (N 18352), (b) 11 April 2007 (N 18356), (c) 13 April 2007 (N 18358), and (d) 22 April 2007 (N 18367) Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 18 of 28 framing of the risk, as on the same day an advert appeared “The memories of the 1986 lava flow remain in all of in the Agenda section (page 59) of the paper reading: our spirits, from the youngest to the oldest one is worried about a new eruption outside of ‘L’Enclos’.” Survol du Piton de la Fournaise St-Paul In addition, a four-page-long review of the 1977 eruption Overfly Piton de la Fournaise from the ultra-light base and invasion of Piton Sainte-Rose appeared in the Sunday of Cambaie. Magazine supplement of 8 April (JIR, 8 April 2007, pages Special rate of 145 euros during the duration of the 14–17). However, the problems caused due to the closure eruption for a return trip direct to the volcano! of the island perimeter road (RN2) due to lava inundation Information and reservations: was reduced to a small (280 cm )reportinthe bottomleft Agency and telephone number redacted. corner of page 13 (JIR, 8 April 2007); and after the end of the eruption, issues regarding tourist access and sightseeing Supported by a photograph of a vent feeding an exten- dominated reports. Thus, the lava frame was one of colorful sive, braided, lava channel system the advert ran for four spectacle and sightseeing on the front page, with the consecutive days. Previously, on 12 April, a full page art- hazards being spelled out using text-only on deeper pages. icle had appeared on page 9 of JIR featuring the ultra- light flight industry for volcano tourism and over flights. The gas frame Thus, although the readership was well and soberly in- The gas problem tended to be pictured in black and formed on the hazard, there was still an element of tour- white, with images featuring people and faces rather ism and sightseeing to the frame. than the hazard itself (e.g., Fig. 12). These people were the victims of gas, such as school children and the re- The lava frame sponders attending to the victims, mainly fire and medical Thelavaframe wasdominated by spectacularphotosofin- staff. Unlike the lava frame, no preparatory, background candescent fountains feeding lava channels, flow fronts and or anecdotal information was given regarding the gas haz- ocean-entry flows (e.g., Fig. 6). Thelavatendedtodomin- ard. Explanations of the problem only appeared the day ate the photo montages and front page flags, and was asso- after the gas made a first impact (Leyral 2007a), and it was ciated with tourism and photography, the problems caused not until two days following the initial reporting of the gas to the local population being of secondary importance. hazard, on 5 April, that this hazard was featured on page These lava flows were thus portrayed as an attraction ra- 1, appearing under headline “GAS alert” and featuring a ther than a threat. For example, on 3 April the three-page heavily condensed, billowing plume (Fig. 3). There was photo montage (JIR, 3 April 2007, pages 36–38) was domi- also no community memory of such impacts, as revealed nated by spectacular color images of incandescent lava from the following passage in Leyral (2007b), channels and ocean-entry lava surrounded by sightseers, as was the front page (Fig. 3). Hence our flash tests returned “From the youngest to the oldest (people), it is memories of images such as a tourist’s “hat” and the color unbelief that dominates. ‘We have never seen that,’ is “red” (Table 2). It was only late in the eruption that the the phrase invariably repeated by the people one front-page frame for lava became less voyeuristic, with the meets in the main street.” front page of 27 April featuring an image of lava flows moving up the road into Le Tremblet, with emergency ser- As a result, the gas hazard was an unknown threat, and vices at-hand for forest fire damp down, under the headline became associated with words such as “fear”, “panic”, “wor- Lava on the road towards Le Tremblet (Fig. 11). ried” and “catastrophe”, all of which appear in the report of Deeper in the newspaper, the lava hazard was communi- Fig. 12. This 4 April report, appearing under the page 12 cated in text through description and analogy to previous headline, “A cloud of sulfur causes a wind of panic”,lead events that had impacted populations on La Réunion. For off with a paragraph that read (Leyral 2007b), example, in the precursory phase of reporting, the reader- ship had been reminded of the recent evacuations and “Around fifty adolescents affected, fourteen taken to damage inflicted on populated areas in 1977, 1986 and the hospitals of Saint-Joseph and Saint-Pierre. This is 2002 (Martel-Asselin 2007c). The experience of lava inva- the social consequence of the passage of a cloud of sion of Sainte-Philippe in 1986 was also still fresh in the volcanic gases through the town center of Saint- memory of the local population as revealed by witness Joseph early yesterday afternoon. Fortunately causing statements. For example, on 6 April the experience of more fear than harm.” 1986 was mentioned directly five times in one article alone (Leyral 2007). This article appeared with a photo Experience was thus a key factor controlling appropri- captioned, ate reporting and conveying of the gas hazard. That is, Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 19 of 28 Fig. 11 Front page of JIR featuring the lava flow threat to the village of Le Tremblet published on 27 April 2007 (N 18372) there had been no experience of gas emission and im- The ash frame pact amongst the population or the journalist; for lava The air fall problem became obvious on 4 April 2007, flows, there had been—it was a known quantity for when the advice was communicated that young children which there was experience and memory so that frame should be kept inside, and fruit and vegetables taken was an informed one that was not associated with “fear” from local allotments should be washed before con- or “panic”. All the same, advice regarding the gas and sumption (Leyral 2007c). The sole front page devoted to ash hazard was given in reports contained within the is- the air fall hazard did not appear until two days later, sues of 4 and 5 April, with further advice regarding featuring a man under an umbrella next to a bus stop health effects of sulfuric acid being provided by a lung with no other person in sight (Fig. 13). Hence, the flash specialist on 7 April. As we see next, the ash hazard was tests for this returned responses such as “bus”, “stop” framed in a similar way, not being associated with the and “umbrella” (Table 2). That the description of the spectacle and sightseeing, but instead creating worry and problem was then left to a local resident, who was uncertainty; worse “fear” and “panic”. quoted as saying “there were lots (of Pele’s hair) in the Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 20 of 28 Fig. 12 Report and imagery from page 12 of JIR published on 4 April 2007 (N 18349) illustrating the gas hazard Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 21 of 28 Fig. 13 Front page of JIR featuring the air fall hazard published on 6 April 2007 (N 18351) town center and my car was covered” (Leyral 2007c), Pele’s hair followed by ash, which makes the road embodied the problem of framing this hazard. That is, it surface particularly slippery.” was framed in terms of the victims, and not the re- sponders or decision makers. Indeed definition of, and Parallel with this was a feeling of unease among the ad-hoc responses to, the air fall hazard were spontan- resident population. For example, the lead-out para- eous and developed by those subject to the hazard. For graph of a full page article published on 6 April, example, Leyral (2007b) reported, entitled “Tremblet wakes under ash and fear”,read (Leyral 2007b): “Pedestrians are rare. Those that adventure outside don’t forget their umbrellas, not to protect themselves “An atmosphere of doom reigns over the village of from the sun but above all from the continuous rain Tremblet. After a sleepless night, people woke up of cinder. Parked cars are covered by a mixture of yesterday under volcanic ash ……… Cut off from the Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 22 of 28 world since Wednesday night, residents still live in In the same report, a figure caption read “uncertainty fear of an eruption outside of ‘L’Enclos’”. dominated for part of the afternoon until a helicopter reconnaissance revealed that this was a false alarm” Resident quotes associated with this article included, “I (Leyral et al. 2007a). During the evacuation reporting was scared, but now I am OK”, “I did not sleep all night”, was again biased towards the viewpoints of the resi- and “you know, one breathes anxiously here.” On the same dents, there being 14 statements from residents of Le day, the following headline appeared at the top of page 18, Tremblet in evacuation-related articles on 7 April, as opposed to two from the decision making authorities. In “The population split between worry and fascination” addition space set aside to reporting of the evacuation was 75% in favor of the resident population. As a result, This “fear”, “scared”, “anxious” and “worried” feeling the frame for the evacuation was very much set-up by led to descriptors such as “apocalyptic” being used, to the population themselves through publication of their cause a general atmosphere of unease and a feeling that quotes. These quotes paint a picture of a confused and this was “the end of the world”. On 7 April, for example, poorly managed operation, with little recognition of the one resident of Le Tremblet was quoted as saying, “It’s actual needs of the evacuees. The following examples not a volcano anymore; it’s a monster.” The same resi- are typical: dent went on to say, “… … … we heard by word of mouth that it was “Tonight, I prefer to stay at the gym. I do not want to necessary to evacuate” (Leyral et al. 2007a); sleep next to a ‘thing’ like that. I have my 83-year-old  “We had already prepared our things. But in the rush, father with me, he trembles. My five-year-old daughter in twominutes,wewerejustabletotakethe essentials: does not understand what is happening. She believes the dogs and a little linen” (Leyral et al. 2007a); that the house will burn.”  “My moral is at zero. I am tired. Since they closed the road, we have been isolated from the world. We The following day, the experience of Le Tremblet was have no moral support. The mayor and the police described under the headline “After hell, the desolation” pass in front of us without ever giving us news. We (Lutton 2007a). Associating a hazard with names that do not even know what will happen. The authorities convey fear, such as a monster, evil or the devil is not do not inform us” (Anon 2007f); uncommon (Galli and Nigro 1987). The monster frame  “It happenedveryquickly andbrutally” (Leyral was not necessarily appreciated, with the following opin- et al. 2007b); ion piece appearing on page 24 of the 17 April edition:  “The police went by saying ‘leave.’ But you understand Ihave a business.Later,others returned to tellus that A monster ! there was no danger……… I really left at the last I heard the other night that the eruption of Piton la (possible) moment” (Leyral et al. 2007b). Fournaise was being presented on national TV with the statement “It’s not a volcano anymore; it’s a monster.” These impressions of “lack of information”, “confu- The conclusion of this report once again makes local sion”, “rush” and “poor moral” contrasts with the picture tourism professionals bristle. Tourism, following last portrayed by the authorities who claimed that the evacu- year’s problems of shark attacks, dog baiting, and the ation had been completed (Leyral et al. 2007a): “chik” (i.e., the disease chikungunya), already gives the island a negative image in the Parisian media. “calmly and in compliance with the scheme we had planned, namely following three evacuation stages from All the same, those living in the impacted zone were the most exposed area to the least exposed area ……… genuinely scared and anxious. They thus needed re- the most sensitive zone between Citrons Galets and Le assurance, information and help. Thus the manner in Rempart was evacuated in ten minutes.” which potential evacuation was communicated and exe- cuted became extremely important. The prefecture concluded: “if it was a false alarm even better, it has shown us that the evacuation plan works very The evacuation frame well”. The next day some residents had some conciliatory The evacuation of Le Tremblet on 6 April was framed words, one evacuated resident saying (Leyral 2007), extremely negatively, as witnessed by the lead headline on 7 April which read, “The authorities were a bit rushed for a false alarm, but as they say prevention is better than a cure. Sure “Le Tremblet evacuated for nothing” it was a little panicked, but it was better to do it by Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 23 of 28 day rather than at night, that would have been not helped by a dichotomy in statements such as the situ- disastrous.” ation in Le Tremblet was “hellish” and “catastrophic”, while then claiming that the evacuation was “for nothing”. Some displayed an optimistic mentality, with one resi- Likewise the response plan was both described as “well-or- dent arguing that with all of the rain that the area ganized” and “poorly-implemented” at the same time. receives, The ocean entry frame “I don’t have any worries. Nature is too strong. She For the ocean entry, the front pages focused entirely on will quickly reclaim her rights.” the “mysteries of the deep” and in particular on the exotic fish that were floating to the surface (Table 1), Others stated that “we like our life here; the volcano with the flash tests returning “mystery” and “fish” as the doesn’t make us scared; it’s an old friend” (Lutton main impressions (Table 2). The ocean entry was thus 2007b). However, the experience had been a severe framed as an interesting curiosity—almost a coup for shock, such that a team of psychologists was deployed Réunion—for which, although the hazards were stated, on 11 April to work with the residents of Le Tremblet there was no suggestion of links with danger or risk. (Lutton 2007c). The prediction amongst the response Under the title “Strange fish make the surface” Lauret workers arriving in Le Tremblet was that the residents (2007), for example, reported that, (Lutton 2007c). “this is phenomenon that has not been described until “will support very badly a wave of tourists armed with yesterday. It could even be a first.” cameras to view the eruption. There will have to be a break in their suffering”. Likewise, the following day (Monday 10 April), a two page report under the title “The mysteries of the Abyss By 27 April the experience of the eruption and the evacu- within reach” led with (Frasson-Botton 2007): ation had become so intense, after three weeks of “worry” and “stress” that one resident stated that (Anon 2007), “Yesterday morning in St. Rose, scientists reiterated their miraculous catch of Sunday by collecting other “we were happy to live here. But now if it is possible species of dead fish that had ascended from the to sell the house and move away, I think we will leave depths and were floating on the surface of the water, with pleasure.” sometimes the species was unknown (about thirty species were collected). A remarkable side effect of Another resident described a “crisis of nerves”, adding the Fournaise (eruption), probably a first.” that “Idon’t think I have the courage to go back.” The article finishing with the statement that, By 11 April, the “new, miraculous fish” had even attracted the attention of the Natural History Museum of “It has been three weeks now that everyone has slept Paris (Graignic 2007), with the “mystery of the abysses” with one eye open.” frame continuing through 12 April. An article published on 15 April went as far as to celebrate a “discovery Feelings in Le Tremblet were thus similar to those ex- Réunionnaise.” In contrast, the economic hardships of perienced in Kalapana (Kilauea, Hawaii) where residents local fisherman, whose livelihood was at risk and to whom having undergone an intensely stressful and shocking the loss of fisheries was an extreme concern (see Part 1), experience resented the intrusion of tourists, sightseers only received attention on the first day of the “hot water” and media into their zone of personal distress; thus story (9 April). beginning to develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress However, these events were certainly not the “first”, syndrome (Weisel and Stapleton 1992). Probably, a “mysterious”, “new” or a “discovery”. During Fernandi- frame whereby a page 9 headline on 7 April suggested na’s 1995 eruption lava entered the ocean to result in the that Le Tremblet was “at the gates of hell” likely did not death of at-least 15 species of fish as reported by help. As a result, residents suggested that the evacuation McCosker et al. (1997). McCosker et al. (1997) wrote should have occurred by 5 April (Leyral 2007b), and a that, “in virile competition with feeding seabirds”, they quarter of the population had already left of their own ac- were able to capture a small sample of fish found dead cord when the evacuation order was finally implemented or dying at the (ocean) surface. These fish died not just (Leyral 2007c). Some of the evacuees then stayed where as a result of thermal effects, but also due to acoustic they were when the evacuation order was rescinded shock, dissolved chemicals, suspended sediments and (Leyral et al. 2007a;Leyral 2007). The negative frame was embolism associated with rapid ascent, so that “most of Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 24 of 28 the fish that possessed gas bladders exhibited such organ- Naccarato and Neuendorf (1998) and Neuendorf (2002), isms distended from their mouths”; some, potentially, and hence delivering a frame that was routine and con- came from as deep as 1200 m (McCosker et al. 1997). sistent in structure and format (Reese 2010). As a result, Likewise in Hawaii, during ocean entry of Mauna Loa’s the stories of the day were always in predictable posi- 1950 eruption, Finch and Macdonald (1950) noted that tions and organized in a routine hierarchy, so that the “by 17:00 (on 2 June, 19 hours after the eruption had reader would know—through experience—where to look begun) a line of steaming water extended half a mile off for most important news. Our flash tests also proved shore. In this water zone many fish were killed, to be that the front page design was also successful in framing seen drifting or washed up onshore”. The style of the volcanic hazards in a way that the key elements of the coverage of the ocean entry during 2007 thus indicates story were held in the short-term memory. The compo- excitement coupled with an ignorance regarding the nents of this frame delivery involved: process and its effects. (i) Headline placement was always at the top of the The bench page, and involved an interleaved mixture of 4 ± 2 Upon ocean entry, lava flow into water creates what has short- and medium-length words; become termed a “bench”; an extremely hazardous loca- (ii) The story-of-the day was always written out as large tion due to its instability and associated explosive activ- font (with important words being capitalized and/or ity (Mattox and Mangan 1997). Collapses not only take appearing first or last in the headline) in the center large amounts of land—and all standing on it—with it, of the page; creating a local tsunami of hot water, but also trigger (iii)A color image, usually containing a person, was lava–water interaction explosions that send bombs and always used to support the story-of-the day headline; blocks inland and, potentially, into tourist viewing sites (iv) The image dominated the front page serving as the (Johnson et al. 2000). The first bench collapse during background and/or center-piece for all other the 2007 eruption was reported on 25 April, as an aside elements. to a two page photo montage dominated by spectacular color photographs of active lava at night. Other photos From our flash tests, we find that the frame format included pictures of boats, jet skis and paddle boarders defined was extremely effective in, in the words of around the steaming water off-shore of the ocean entry. Lippmann (1922), forming a consistent picture in the As a minor addition to an article otherwise set aside to heads of the recipients regarding the volcanic hazards the on-going problems of Le Tremblet on 27 April, fur- being reported. We have thus, here, provided an analysis ther bench collapses were reported to have occurred “at framework that allows the way in which readers will re- 12h30, 16h and 16h30” on the previous day. Thus, al- ceive and perceive information, communicated by news- though bench collapse is a well-known hazard in Hawaii papers during volcanic crises, to be defined and tracked. (Johnson et al. 2000) and which has caused casualties in Unfortunately, in the case study followed here, only the past at Kilauea (Perkins 2006), the bench completely the well-known (lava flow and pit crater) hazards were lacked a hazard frame. framed well. Gas, air fall and ocean entry hazards, as well as the evacuation plans and the decision making Defining, tracking and responding to frames during a system, were very poorly framed. Having defined these volcanic emergency. Reese (2010) argues that framing frames the next question to ask is: what can the vol- is concerned with the way interests, communicators, canologist do to respond to a developing frame? The sources and culture “combine to yield coherent ways of answer is: support positive frames, while responding to understanding the world”. For Reese (2010), the success negative frames through pre-emptive measures. Mea- of framing depends on how comprehensively or com- sures will include scientific advertising (Hopkins 1923), pletely the media source organizes information, and how that reach the community exposed to the frame, and persistent the frame is through time; that is, how routine press releases (Lewis 2012)thattargetthe journalists is the format and structure of the frame. We provide building the frame. here a simple methodology to define the components of Reese’s(2010) frame for the front page of a newspaper Scientific advertising during a volcanic crisis. Our analysis of the front pages Business and industry often respond to negative frames, of 120 consecutive editions of JIR published before, dur- or take advantage of positive frames, through appropri- ing and after the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la ately designed, timed and placed adverts (Harris 2015b). Fournaise reveals that its front page was designed to be The same occurred in the cases examined here. On 10 the ideal vehicle for maximizing readership information April, the day after the fish story broke during the April delivery and recall of the event following the model of 2007 eruption, an advert appeared on the same page as Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 25 of 28 the fish story of that day by a garden depot offering as well as to better communicate evacuation plans and special prices on various live, ornamental fish such as the decision making system. guppies and goldfish. We have already cited the adverts for over-flights of the Cratère Dolomieu following the Press releases: The need for outreach efforts to journalist collapse. We also note that adverts by various insurance during a volcanic crisis companies offering coverage and banks offering loans Although Russell (1986) identified that specialist science following passage of cyclone Gamède, which caused ex- journalists generally have good scientific backgrounds, the tensive property damage across the island during 24–28 non-specialist journalist may have difficulty understanding February 2007, ran throughout our study period, having complex issues and interpreting numeric data (Voss 2002). begun to appear on 3 March, and running through Recognizing this problem, Smith et al. (2005) placed the mid-March. onus on the scientist, suggesting that poor science writing Buying advertisement space may appear unethical or couldbeimprovedifscientists “took the trouble” to com- vulgar to the scientist, but there are other means of municate effectively with the journalists. As a result, advertising such as setting up open houses, film shows, Woloshin et al. (2009) argued that scientific bodies should exhibitions, etc., and then advertising their content, loca- work harder to promote accurate translation of output into tion and times, or by offering useable editorial or review news, while making it “easier for journalists to get it right” material to a journalist. Although probably not in re- by ensuring that press releases routinely present and de- sponse to the frames highlighted here, such an approach scribe the situation. In fulfilling this need, Slovic (2000) was in fact implemented during the 2007 eruption. recommended that scientists should understand that risk Eruption-related adverts first appeared in the Agenda and uncertainty are inherently difficult to communicate, section of JIR (page 63) on 16 April. There were two. but that the media are the dominant source of risk informa- While the first advertised a temporary exhibition to be tion. Thus, Slovic (2000) argued, scientists should be pro- run at La Maison du Volcan between 21 April and 21 active in enhancing science writing by educating reporters October 2007 entitled “30 years on from the 1977 lava”; on the importance and subtleties of risk stories. Peters the second advertised showing of a film covering “all of (1995) added that, while Journalists accept entertainment the stages” of the 2 April 2007 eruption at the same as a function of mass media more readily than scientists; location. The launch of the exhibition, to mark the 30th scientists have little understanding of the journalistic need anniversary of the 1977 eruption, was supported by a to attract and fascinate readers by means of certain stylistic small piece on page 23 of the 17 April edition of JIR elements. What these findings and recommendations entitled a “special volcano evening” which would be held amount to, are (i) if a need for information by the jour- on 27 April. These adverts ran daily through 25 April. nalist is identified, (ii) the journalist should be approached, Whether chance or not, the event was a perfect and with (iii) information selected and presented in a way that timely opportunity to outreach and educate. Special sec- is useful to, and useable by, the journalist. Tracking the tions, supplements and Sunday magazines are other good frames developing during a volcanic crisis, and identifying places for scientific advertising. The Sunday Magazine thedesignofthatframe,isawaytoensurethatthe infor- (“Mag Dimanche”) of JIR was used during April 2007 to mation provided is appropriately selected and presented; an inform on volcanic processes, being used on both the approach that understands the stylistic elements of the weekends of 7–8 April and 21–22 April. The Sunday news design applied. Magazine is an 11 page supplement appearing in the mid- The formal means to outreach information to the mass dle of JIR each Sunday. It carried multiple page reviews of, mediaisthrough apress release, where Slovic(2000)recom- and background on, topical newsworthy subjects, as well mended the development of science news clearinghouses, as health, cinema, book and music reviews. On 8 April, arguing that reporters need to know how and where to the Sunday Magazine featured a four-page-long review on access relevant, knowledgeable and cooperative sources. the effects of, and response to, the 1977 effusive eruption On an agency or institutional level, this would be a of Piton de la Fournaise and its ingress into the town of press office or press officer—a point of contact that the Piton-Saint-Rose (pages 14–17). Then, on 22 April, a journalist knows and trusts to be a pertinent informa- five-page review detailed the history of exploration of tion source. In the case followed here the frame that pit craters at the Cratère Dolomieu (pages 15–19). Un- needed to be rectified was well-defined, the exact need fortunately, though, only the well-known (lava flow and for information was known and the publisher contact- pit crater collapse) hazards were targeted. Given our able, so that direct contact from the volcanologist to content analysis, follow-up measures would have done the journalist was the obvious option. In part 1 of this well to educate, through web-site postings, public pre- work, we identified the fact that reporting on Piton de sentations, and fact sheet releases, on gas, air fall and la Fournaise’s April 2007 eruption in JIR benefitted from ocean entry hazards as and when the hazards occurred, the fact that specialist science writers were involved. Better, Harris and Villeneuve Journal of Applied Volcanology (2018) 7:3 Page 26 of 28 there was already a good relationship between the observa- Additional files tory and the journalist allowing direct and immediate com- Additional file 1: Flash Tests - Group A.xlsx: Flash test results for Group munication, and that communication route was plainly A (OVPF). (XLSX 16 kb) used, there being almost daily quotes from OVPF staff and Additional file 2: Flash Tests - Group B.xlsx: Flash test results for Group their bulletins in JIR (see Part 1). The key is, though, to B (Tourist Guides). (XLSX 61 kb) identify the need for information and provide information Additional file 3: Flash Tests - Group C.xlsx: Flash test results for Group that fills any knowledge gaps that develop. C (Students). (XLSX 111 kb) Additional file 4: Piton April 2007 - Headline Analysis.xlsx: Results of headline analysis. (XLSX 113 kb) Conclusion Generally, as a gauge for information content, the front Acknowledgements page of the JIR was always a mirror for its contents, with We are extremely grateful to all participants in the flash tests for agreeing to the frame delivered by the front page being supported participate and for consenting to use of the results. Two anonymous by the responses of the flash tests. Although, as found reviewers, and the associate editor (Ilan Kelman), provided excellent advice on how to better communicate this work and its implications. We are also in part one of this study, the quantity and quality of haz- exceedingly grateful Philippe Le Claire (Director of the JIR) for granting us ard information was excellent, the way in which it was permission for reproduction of JIR material and front pages in support of this framed was not so positive. Not surprisingly, hazards re- scientific application. This is ANR-LAVA contribution no. 3. lated to frequently experienced, and hence familiar, vol- Funding canic phenomena (lava flows and pit craters) were well- This work was funded by the Agence National de la Recherche (ANR: framed, but those relating to unfamiliar phenomena www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr) through project ANR-LAVA (ANR Program: (widespread gas effects, air fall, evacuation and ocean DS0902 2016; Project: ANR-16 CE39–0009, Link: www.agence-nationale-recherch- e.fr/?Project=ANR-16-CE39-0009). entry/bench collapse) were not. Pit crater collapse and lava flow hazards were framed using their natural colors Availability of data and materials and using clear imagery of the phenomenon, although— Raw data used here were PDF copies of the newspaper “Le Journal de L’Ile de La Réunion” (JIR). These PDFs are available (for purchase) from for lava flows in particular—there was an element of spec- https://www.payandread.fr/4DACTION/NewSwitchPublication?publicationID=18 tacle and promotion of sightseeing. Gas and ash fall haz- https://www.clicanoo.re/. Argument support taken from each PDF is given as ard became framed using images and words of the referenced. We provide here the results of our headline analysis which is given as an EXCEL spreadsheet in the electronic supporting material (Additional file 1). victims, so that it became worrying and frightening, and Also given in the electronic supporting material are the results of our flash associated with panic. As a result, the volcano became tests for group A (Additional file 2:Group A),group B(Additionalfile 3: framed as a monster and situation apocalyptic and hellish Group B) and group C (Additional file 4:Group A),with – for the sake of anonymity – all names removed. which, within the framework of SARF (Kasperson et al. 1988), amplified the risk and built fear. This probably con- Authors’ contributions tributed to the evacuation measures being framed as con- Both authors have reviewed this manuscript and contributed to its content. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. fused and pointless. In contrast, the ocean entry and bench collapse had no hazard-frame at all, and instead be- Competing interests came associated with the exotic fish that bobbed to the The authors declare that they have no competing interests. surface. Thus, this volcanic process became attenuated to the point of it not existing as a risk; but being framed sim- Publisher’sNote ply as a curiosity. This was due to the hazard being be- Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. yond the experience of the reporters. In tracking the frames apparent in the media, there is Author details an opportunity for the volcanology community to under- Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, IRD, OPGC, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, 6 Avenue Blaise Pascal, 63178 Aubière, France. Observatoire stand how people perceive volcanic hazard based on ma- Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, Institut de Physique du Globe de terial published in the mass media during a volcanic Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-75005 Paris, crisis. We can use this knowledge to act on gaps and France. Laboratoire GéoSciences Réunion, Université de La Réunion, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS, F-97744, Saint misconceptions that appear as they are published. 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Journal of Applied VolcanologySpringer Journals

Published: May 31, 2018

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