The view on homogeneous population genetic structure in many marine fish with high mobility has changed significantly during the last ten years. Molecular genetic population studies over the whole ranges of such species as Atlantic herring and Atlantic cod showed a complex picture of spatial differentiation both on the macrogeographic and, in many areas, on the microgeographic scale, although the differentiation for neutral molecular markers was low. It was established that the migration activity of such fish is constrained in many areas of the species range by hydrological and physicochemical transition zones (environmental gradients), as well as gyres in the spawning regions. Natal homing was recorded in a number of marine fish species. Existing in marine fish constraints of gene migration and a very high variance of reproductive success determine a significantly smaller proportion of effective reproductive size of their populations in the total population size, which generates more complex abundance dynamics than assumed earlier. The various constraints on gene migration and natal homing in marine fish promote the formation of local adaptations at ecologically important phenotypic traits. Effects of selection underlying adaptations are actively investigated in marine fish on the genomic level, using approaches of population genomics. The knowledge of adaptive intraspecific structure enables understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes, that influence biodiversity and providing spatial frames for conservation of genetic resources under commercial exploitation. Contemporary views on the population genetic and adaptive structures or biocomplexity in marine fish support and develop the main principles of the conception of systemic organization of the species and its regional populations, which were advanced by Yu.P. Altukhov and Yu.G. Rychkov.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 11, 2011
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