Acute agitation is a frequent reason for emergency psychiatric intervention. It is important to intervene early to avoid escalation of agitation to aggression. Reducing risk by using effective treatments will result in fewer instances of seclusion and restraint, and fewer injuries to staff and patients. This paper will first review the epidemiology of aggressive behavior and mental disorders, followed by a discussion of assessment and diagnostic considerations. The pathophysiology of safety risk is discussed within the context of the model of the “triune brain.” Pharmacological treatment strategies for acute episodes of agitated behavior will be discussed in detail. This includes newer formulations of novel antipsychotics such as liquids and rapidly disintegrating tablets, as well as intramuscular preparations.
Psychiatric Quarterly – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 18, 2004
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