NEW REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR THE ALUMINUM INDUSTRY
S. V. Éntin,
G. S. Rossikhina,
and N. S. Mamonova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 109 – 111, April, 2006.
Original article submitted November 15, 2005.
A technology for production of andalusite-based refractory components for the lining of anode firing kilns is
described. The formulation for a low-cement castable resistant to attack by molten aluminum is proposed.
REFRACTORIES FOR ANODE FIRING KILNS
At the Semiluki Refractory Plant (SRP), a lot of experi
ence in the production of aluminosilicate components has
been gained; for many years, the SRP has been a leading sup-
plier of mullite components for anode firing kilns in Russia.
Since 2003, the SRP, in cooperation with Damrec Co.
(France), a world-leading manufacture of andalusite, have
been engaged in developing technologies for manufacture of
andalusite-based refractory materials. A survey of the world
experience in the use of refractories
for the lining of heat powered units
has suggested that andalusite is a
promising raw material for a range of
advantageous properties. The anda
lusite grains, unlike those of many
other fillers, retain a natural mono
crystalline structure. The glassy
phase produced during mullitization
does not degrade the material’s prop
erties since, owing to its high visco
sity, it concentrates in the grain capil
laries. Andalusite exhibits a high re
sistance to attack by CO owing to the
low content of iron and its particular
mode of distribution. Iron is mainly
concentrated in a glassy phase com
posed of ferrugineous aluminosili
cates which are inert towards CO.
With foreign manufactures, the most preferred material
for the lining of anode firing kilns is andalusite owing to its
unique properties such as high thermal stability, high incipi
ent deformation temperature under load, and resistance to
creep and to chemical attack by CO, which make andalusite
superior to filling materials of aluminosilicate composition.
Relevant data are given in Table 1.
In Russia, mullite refractories are manufactured from
high-alumina chamotte; in properties, they are inferior to an-
dalusite-based refractories available from foreign manufac-
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 47, No. 2, 2006
1083-4877/06/4702-0098 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Based on materials reported to the con
ference “Aluminum of Siberia-2005.”
Semiluki Refractory Plant Joint-Stock
Co., Semiluki, Voronezh Region, Russia.
TABLE 1. Technical Characteristics of Components Used for the Lining of Anode Firing Kilns
from foreign manufacturers
, not less that 45 50 59 64
, not higher than 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.3
O, not higher than 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5
Apparent density, g/cm
, not less that
2.20 2.30 2.50 2.45
Open porosity, %, not higher than 16 16 16 21
Compressive strength, MPa, not less than 40 45 60 35
Linear aftershrinkage, % (5 h)
at temperature, °C
Incipient deformation temperature
under load (T
), °C, not higher than 1500 1530 1630 1500
Creep rate (48 h), %/h, not higher than,
at temperature, °C
Thermal stability (thermal cycles),
not less than 30 30 30 10
Heat conductivity, W/(m × K), at 1250°C
1.7 – 2.4 1.7 – 2.3 1.8 – 2.4 –