The trematode Phyllodistomum thunni is recorded here for the first time in the marine fish Macrodon ancylodon (Perciformes, Sciaenidae), king weakfish, from the Brazilian coast, South Atlantic. The fish were caught in the region of Valença, Bahia, Brazil, between August 2009 and May 2010, to study its parasite fauna. Seventy-four fish were examined and the kidney ducts of 11 of them were found to be parasitized by this trematode. The parasite prevalence was 14.8%; the mean intensity was 2.7 parasites per fish and the infrapopulations ranged from 1 to 5 parasites. Phyllodistomum thunni was originally described in yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, from the Gulf of Guinea. Therefore, the geographic distribution and the host range of gorgoderid trematode have been expanded. Keywords: First record, Trematode, Urinary system, Kidney ducts, Macrodon ancylodon, South Atlantic, Brazilian coast Background There are no currently published records of Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), com- Gorgoderidae Looss, 1901 in king weakfish, or any monly known as the king weakfish, is a demersal sci- other parasites of the urinary system. This study pro- aenid fish, with geographic distribution in South vides the first report of occurrences of parasitism by America from Venezuela to Argentina (Figueiredo and the gorgoderid trematode Phyllodistomum thunni in Menezes 1980). Like other sciaenids, it is commercially the kidneys of Macrodon ancylodon from coastal important, and it is one of principal species fished in waters of Bahia, Brazil, South Atlantic. Brazil (Souza et al. 2007; Castello 2010; Barros et al. 2011). According to Piorski et al. (2004), it is a generalist Methods and carnivorous species, feeding mainly on fish and Fish sampling was performed by fishermen from the re- decapods. gion of Valença, in the coastal waters of Bahia, north- According to Kohn et al. (2007), South American eastern Brazil (13°22′26”S - 39°04′3”W) between August sciaenids harbor 41 species of trematodes, and some of 2009 and May 2010, in order to survey the parasite these have been reported in up to six host species. Five fauna of this species. Seventy-four specimens were ex- species of digenetic trematodes have been recorded as amined and trematodes parasitizing the kidney ducts parasite of the gut of M. ancylodon. These parasites are were found. The parasites were counted, preserved in Lecithochirium microstomum (Hemiuridae), Opecoeloides 70% alcohol, stained with Mayer’s carmalumen, dehy- polynemi (Opecoelidae), Parahemiurus merus (Hemiuridae), drated in alcohol, clarified in Faia’s creosote and mounted Pleorchis americanus (Acanthocolpidae) and Prosorhynchus in Canada balsam. Identification was performed in accord- osakii (Bucephalidae) registered by Sabas and Luque (2003). ance with Baudin-Laurencin and Richard (1973)and Kohn et al. (2007) recognized the occurrence of P. Campbell (2008). Voucher specimen is deposited in americanus in South American M. ancylodon. CHIOC (Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz) under number 38285. Drawing, picture and mea- * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org surements were made using a Zeiss PrimoStar microscope Laboratório de Estudos da Ictiofauna, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, equipped with the AxioVision software. Measurements Ambientais e Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia (UFRB), Rua Rui Barbosa, 710, Cruz das Almas, Bahia CEP 44380-000, Brazil were presented in millimeters. © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Guidelli et al. Marine Biodiversity Records (2018) 11:9 Page 2 of 4 Results Thirty trematode specimens were quantified, parasitizing the kidney ducts of eleven king weakfish, thus represent- ing parasite prevalence of 14.8%, mean intensity of 2.7 parasites per fish and infrapopulations ranging in size from 1 to 5 parasites. The trematodes belonged to the family Gorgoderidae and were identified as Phyllodisto- mum thunni Baudin-Laurencin & Richard, 1973 (Fig. 1). This parasite was first described in Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788), the yellowfin tuna, in the Gulf of Guinea. One remarkable characteristic of the specimens exam- ined here was its large body size (Table 1), just like the specimens described by Baudin-Laurencin and Richard. Therefore, these trematodes caused almost complete ob- literation of the lumen (Fig. 2). However, P. thunni in M. ancylodon presented smaller size than in its type host. Conclusions The trematodes presented here are included in the family Gorgoderidae, because they inhabit the urinary ducts, due to the shape and arrangement of the vitellarium and sim- plicity of the male’s terminal genitalia. This family com- prises common endoparasites in the urinary systems of amphibians, reptiles, cartilaginous fish and bony fish. They can also occur, although less frequently, in the swim blad- der, coelom, gut and gallbladder (Campbell 2008). According to Campbell (2008), other characteristics that describe Gorgoderidae are smooth tegument, thin body muscles, well-developed suckers, a wide hindbody where the gonads are located, pretesticular ovary, sem- inal vesicle, pars prostatica and ejaculatory duct undevel- oped, genital pore close to the intestinal bifurcation, uterus stretching to the hindbody, and small and non- operculated eggs. The specimens found here were identi- fied as Phyllodistomum according to Campbell (2008) due to the infection site, arrangement and appearance of vitellarium and gonads, adjusting to the morphological variation recognized for the genus by Ho et al. (2014). This is the most numerous genus of Gorgoderidae, with more than 100 species known from several freshwater and marine fish (Campbell 2008). According to Kohn et al. (2007), five Phyllodistomum species parasitizing eight host species in saltwater and freshwater are known in South America. A single species, Phyllodistomum sam- paioi Travassos, Kohn & Mota, 1963, has been reported parasitizing the intestine of smooth weakfish, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier, 1830). Recently, new species, Phyllo- distomum inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Pérez-Ponce de León & Rubio-Godoy, 2013 and P. spinopapillatum Pérez- Ponce de León, Pinacho-Pinacho, Mendoza-Garfia & Fig. 1 Phyllodistomum thunni Baudin-Laurencin & Richard, 1973 García-Varela, 2015, were described in the Neotropical (Trematoda, Gorgoderidae) parasite of king weakfish Macrodon ancylodon region (Razo-Mendivil et al. 2013; Pérez-Ponce de León (Bloch & Schneider, 1801). Ventral view. Scale bar: 2 mm et al. 2015). Guidelli et al. Marine Biodiversity Records (2018) 11:9 Page 3 of 4 Table 1 Morphometric characteristics of Phyllodistomum thunni from its type host, Thunnus albacares, and from the new host, Macrodon ancylodon Character Thunnus albacares Macrodon ancylodon Range Mean Range Mean Lenght 15.1–28.0 21.5 8.96–25.04 17.46 Width 2.5–6.8 4.6 0.54–2.49 1.73 Esophagus 0.2–0.4 0.3 0.11–0.36 0.18 Oral sucker (length) 0.8–1.4 1.1 0.36–0.73 0.60 Oral sucker (width) 0.8–1.3 1.05 0.22–0.61 0.50 Ventral sucker (length) 0.8–1.4 1.1 0.32–0.75 0.54 Ventral sucker (width) 0.7–1.3 1.0 0.27–0.63 0.47 Ovary (length) 0.6–1.0 0.8 0.21–0.47 0.36 Ovary (width) 0.4–0.7 0.8 0.12–0.28 0.22 Left testicle (length) 0.7–1.4 1.05 0.23–0.73 0.48 Left testicle (width) 0.4–1.2 0.8 0.11–0.39 0.25 Right testicle (length) 0.8–1.9 1.4 0.31–0.73 0.62 Right testicule (width) 0.5–1.2 0.8 0.12–0.44 0.28 Egg (length) 42–50 33.5 40–50 42.5 Egg (width) 25–28 39 20–30 22.5 Adapted from Baudin-Laurencin and Richard (1973) According to Ho et al. (2014), 28 species of Phyllodis- tomum are accepted as marine. These authors suggested that three morphological groups of marine Phyllodistomum could be distinguished according to the proportions of the forebody and hindbody. Because of the notably large size of the trematodes encountered in king weakfish, they are included in the group whose representatives are clearly elongated. This group contains the species Phyllodistomum marinum (Layman, 1930), Phyllodistomum mugilis Knoff & Fig. 2 Dissected kidney of king weakfish, Macrodon ancylodon Amato, 1992, Phyllodistomum notosinicum Lebedev, 1970, (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), harboring Phyllodistomum thunni Baudin-Laurencin & Richard, 1973. Scale bar: 1 mm P. sampaioi, Phyllodistomum strictum Oshmarin, 1965 and Phyllodistomum thunni Baudin-Laurencin & Richard, 1973. Of these, only P. mugilis and P. sampaioi have previously Phyllodistomum thunni occurred in M. ancylodon with been encountered in the Neotropical region and only prevalence slightly lower than in this type host, when P. thunni is of as large a size as the specimens in the studied by Baudin-Laurencin and Richard (1973). These king weakfish. authors encountered lower mean intensity (1.5), and up Furthermore, the trematodes found here had a smooth to nine specimens in one fish. Some of the weakfish also tegument, rounded pretesticular ovary located on the harbored several parasites, and up to five worm speci- right side, intercaecal uterus, vitellarium forming two V- mens were observed in a single fish. Thus, it can be sug- shaped branching units posterior the ventral sucker, ob- gested that these parasites may cause some effect on the lique and post-ovarian testes, small and numerous eggs parasitized organ, which would need to be further inves- and conspicuous and subterminal excretory pore, like tigated. The parasites also presented smaller size than the trematode P. thunni described by Baudin-Laurencin those from T. albacares. This can be explained through and Richard (1973). This trematode was originally de- the present evidence that the specific identity of the scribed in the yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, in the host influences the parasite’s morphological variables Gulf of Guinea. Therefore, the geographical distribution (Riquelme et al. 2006;González etal. 2013). In a survey of P. thunni has been expanded to the Neotropical re- on species of Opecoelidae in several fish, González et al. gion and its host range has been extended to include (2013) observed variations in parasite body length that Macrodon ancylodon. seemed to be associated with host species sizes, such that Guidelli et al. Marine Biodiversity Records (2018) 11:9 Page 4 of 4 longer parasites were recorded in larger fish. According to Pérez-Ponce de León G, Pinacho-Pinacho CD, Mendoza-Garfias B, García-Varela M. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the the authors, fecundity is also influenced by this variable. Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, According to Bakke (1988), the preparation and fixation with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: morphology, ultrastructure procedures also cause morphological changes. and molecular evidence. Acta Parasitol. 2015;60(2):298–307. Piorski NM, Maranhão FRCL, Rocha RMV, Nunes JLS. Análise da estratégia Ho et al. (2014) reported that Phyllodistomum species alimentar de Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) – (Perciformes: show a wide range of specificity, such that most of the Sciaenidae) de um estuário do litoral ocidental do maranhão – Brasil. Boletim marine species occur in a single host species, and a few do Laboratório de Hidrobiologia. 2004;17:49–52. Razo-Mendivil U, Pérez-Ponce de León G, Rubio-Godoy M. Integrative taxonomy in several species and families. They also indicated that identifies a new species of Phyllodistomum (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) from the only Phyllodistomum lewisi Srivastava, 1938, Phyllodisto- twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), in Central mum mamaevi Parukhin, 1971 and Phyllodistomum tha- Veracruz, Mexico. Parasitol Res. 2013;112(12):4137–50. Riquelme C, George-Nascimento M, Balboa L. Morfometría y fecundidad de lassomum Soheir, Rabie & Ahmed, 2000 parasitized fish Profilicollis bullocki Mateo, Córdova & Guzmán 1982 (Acanthocephala: from different families. With this new host record, it is Polymorphidae) en especies simpátricas de aves costeras de Chile. Rev Chil demonstrated that Phyllodistomum thunni is also a mar- Hist Nat. 2006;79:465–74. Sabas CSS, Luque JL. Metazoan parasites of weakfish, Cynoscion guatucupa and ine species that infect hosts from different families that Macrodon ancylodon (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae), from the coastal zone of the are not closely related. state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2003;12(4):171–8. Souza MR, Carneiro MH, Quirino-Duarte G, Servo GJM. Caracterização da mistura Acknowledgements na pesca de arrasto-de-parelha desembarcada em Santos e Guarujá, São We thank José dos Santos, of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Paulo, Brasil. Bol Inst Pesca. 2007;33(1):43–51. Technology of Bahia (Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Bahia, IFBA), Campus Valença, for his assistance in purchasing fish specimens. This research received no specific grant from any funding agency or from the commercial or not-for-profit sectors. Authors’ contributions GG participated coordinating all phases of the work and drafting of the manuscript. WLGT acquired fish, prepared images, identified parasites and drafting of the manuscript. BPF realized fish analysis, prepared slides and identified parasites. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher’sNote Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Received: 10 May 2016 Accepted: 27 May 2016 References Bakke TA. Morphology of adult Phyllodistomum umblae (Fabricius) (Platyhelminthes, Gorgoderidae): the effect of preparation, killing and fixation procedures. Zool Scr. 1988;17(1):1–13. Barros DF, Torres MF, Frédou FL. Ictiofauna do estuário de São Caetano de Odivelas e Vigia (Pará, Estuário Amazônico). Biota Neotropica. 2011;11(2):367–73. Baudin-Laurencin F, Richard J. Phyllodistomum thunni n. Sp. (Trematoda, Gorgoderidae). Trématode parasite du thon albacore Thunnus albacares. Bulletin du Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle. 1973;3(166):1041–4. Campbell RA. Family Gorgoderidae Looss, 1899. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A, Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central editors. Keys to the Trematoda. Vol. 3. Wallinford: CABI Publishing and the Natural History Museum, Wallingford; 2008. p. 191–213. and we will help you at every step: Castello JP. O futuro da pesca e da aquicultura marinha no brasil: a pesca • We accept pre-submission inquiries costeira. Ciência e Cultura. 2010;62(3):32–5. Figueiredo JL, Menezes NA. Manual de peixes marinhos do Sudeste do Brasil: III. � Our selector tool helps you to ﬁnd the most relevant journal Teleostei (2). São Paulo: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo; 1980. � We provide round the clock customer support González MT, Henríquez V, López Z. Variations in the fecundity and body size of � Convenient online submission digenean (Opecoelidae) species parasitizing fishes from northern Chile. Rev Biol Mar Oceanogr. 2013;48(3):421–9. � Thorough peer review Ho HW, Bray RA, Cutmore SC, Ward S, Cribb TH. Two new species of � Inclusion in PubMed and all major indexing services Phyllodistomum Braun, 1899 (Trematoda: Gorgoderidae Looss, 1899) from � Maximum visibility for your research great barrier reef fishes. Zootaxa. 2014;3779(5):551–62. Kohn A, Fernandes BMM, Cohen SC. South american trematodes parasites of Submit your manuscript at fishes. Rio de Janeiro: Ministério da Saúde–FIOCRUZ; 2007. www.biomedcentral.com/submit
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