Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. 488−492.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © B.B. Troitskii, A.A. Lokteva, V.N. Denisova, M.A. Novikova, L.V. Khokhlova, M.A. Lopatin, T.I. Lopatina, Yu.V. Chechet, 2013,
published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. 525−529.
AND INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
New Antireﬂ ection Coatings on Silicate Glass, Deposited
from a Silicon Dioxide Sol Containing a Nonionogenic
Surfactant and an Oligoether Based on Ethylene Oxide
B. B. Troitskii, A. A. Lokteva, V. N. Denisova, M. A. Novikova, L. V. Khokhlova,
M. A. Lopatin, T. I. Lopatina, and Yu. V. Chechet
Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Nizhni Novgorod, Russia
Received February 20, 2012
Abstract—Transparent nanoporous thin ﬁ lms with low refractive index (1.23–1.25) were produced on glass
substrates by application of a formulation based on a silicon dioxide sol into which two organic compounds, an
oligoether based on ethylene oxide and a nonionogenic surfactant, are introduced. It is shown that the antireﬂ ection
capacity of the nanoporous coating can be substantially raised at comparatively low concentrations of silicon diox-
ide and organic additives in the sol by making higher the rate at which the formulation is applied to the substrate.
The sol-gel process is becoming one of the main ways
to obtain inorganic and composite organo-inorganic
materials . Modern techniques of the sol-gel process
are used to synthesize mesoporous metal dioxides [2–
5]. In particular, thin (80–150 nm) transparent ﬁ lms
of mesoporous silicon dioxide with low refractive
index exhibit the theoretical antireﬂ ection effect: the
maximum optical transmission of a sample with a
single-layer double-side coating in the visible spectral
range (400–800 nm) is 99–100% . It has been shown
previously [7–14] that addition of nonsurfactant organic
compounds (organic acids, derivatives of organic acids,
synthetic carbochain polymers, statistical copolymers,
and oligomers based on ethylene oxide or propylene
oxide) into the silicon dioxide sol makes it possible to
obtain ﬁ lm coatings with a strong antireﬂ ection effect
on glass and quartz.
The effect of the joint introduction of a surfactant
and a compound from the above classes of organic
compounds on the optical properties of silicon dioxide
ﬁ lms has not been systematically studied. It has been
found recently  that sol-formulations of silicon
dioxide with two organic compounds, a nonionogenic
surfactant and poly(propylene glycol), can be used
to deposit antireﬂ ection coatings with good optical
properties on glass.
The goal of our study was to examine the inﬂ uence
exerted by binary additives of a nonionogenic surfactant
and an oligoether based on ethylene oxide, introduced
into a silicon dioxide sol, on the optical properties on
nanoporous silicon dioxide ﬁ lms on silicate glass.
We hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and
obtained a silicon dioxide sol with additives by the
following method. A 50-mL glass vessel was charged
with 5.0 mL of TEOS, 0.6 mL of water, 1 mL of 0.1 N
hydrochloric acid, and 3.3 mL of isopropanol (IP). On
agitating the reaction mixture with a magnetic rabble
at room temperature, we added to its 6-mL portion
30 mL of a solution containing water (twice-distilled)