Neuroprotective Effect of Oxysophocarpine by Modulation of MAPK Pathway in Rat Hippocampal Neurons Subject to Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation and Reperfusion

Neuroprotective Effect of Oxysophocarpine by Modulation of MAPK Pathway in Rat Hippocampal... Oxysophocarpine (OSC), an alkaloid isolated from Sophora flavescens Ait, has been traditionally used as a medicinal agent based on the observed pharmacological effects. In this study, the direct effect of OSC against neuronal injuries induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neonatal rat primary-cultured hippocampal neurons and its mechanisms were investigated. Cultured hippocampal neurons, which were exposed to OGD for 2 h followed by a 24 h reoxygenation, were used as an in vitro model of ischemia and reperfusion. 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to confirm neural damage and to further evaluate the protective effects of OSC. The concentration of intracellular-free calcium [Ca2+]i and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured to determine the intracellular mechanisms and to further estimate the degree of neuronal damage. Changes in expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK were also observed in the in vitro model. It was shown that OSC (0.8, 2, or 5 µmol/L) significantly attenuated the increased absorbance of MTT, and the release of LDH manifests the neuronal damage by the OGD/R. Meanwhile, the pretreatment of the neurons during the reoxygenation period with OSC significantly increased MMP; it also inhibited [Ca2+]i the elevation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the pretreatment with OSC (0.8, 2, or 5 µmol/L) significantly down-regulated expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK in neonatal rat primary-cultured hippocampal neurons induced by OGD/R injury. In conclusion, OSC displays a protective effect on OGD-injured hippocampal neurons by attenuating expression of inflammatory factors via down-regulated the MAPK signaling pathway. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Springer Journals

Neuroprotective Effect of Oxysophocarpine by Modulation of MAPK Pathway in Rat Hippocampal Neurons Subject to Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation and Reperfusion

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Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Subject
Biomedicine; Neurosciences; Cell Biology; Neurobiology
ISSN
0272-4340
eISSN
1573-6830
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10571-017-0501-5
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Oxysophocarpine (OSC), an alkaloid isolated from Sophora flavescens Ait, has been traditionally used as a medicinal agent based on the observed pharmacological effects. In this study, the direct effect of OSC against neuronal injuries induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neonatal rat primary-cultured hippocampal neurons and its mechanisms were investigated. Cultured hippocampal neurons, which were exposed to OGD for 2 h followed by a 24 h reoxygenation, were used as an in vitro model of ischemia and reperfusion. 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to confirm neural damage and to further evaluate the protective effects of OSC. The concentration of intracellular-free calcium [Ca2+]i and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured to determine the intracellular mechanisms and to further estimate the degree of neuronal damage. Changes in expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK were also observed in the in vitro model. It was shown that OSC (0.8, 2, or 5 µmol/L) significantly attenuated the increased absorbance of MTT, and the release of LDH manifests the neuronal damage by the OGD/R. Meanwhile, the pretreatment of the neurons during the reoxygenation period with OSC significantly increased MMP; it also inhibited [Ca2+]i the elevation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the pretreatment with OSC (0.8, 2, or 5 µmol/L) significantly down-regulated expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK in neonatal rat primary-cultured hippocampal neurons induced by OGD/R injury. In conclusion, OSC displays a protective effect on OGD-injured hippocampal neurons by attenuating expression of inflammatory factors via down-regulated the MAPK signaling pathway.

Journal

Cellular and Molecular NeurobiologySpringer Journals

Published: May 9, 2017

References

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