Neurobiological Models of Risky Decision-Making and Adolescent Substance Use

Neurobiological Models of Risky Decision-Making and Adolescent Substance Use Purpose of Review This article provides an overview of evidence-based neurobiological models of risky decision-making, noting their implications for adolescent substance use. Drawing on brain and behavioral research, neural imbalance and fuzzy-trace theory are reviewed to explain developmental differences in preferences for risk (tolerating the possibility of bad outcomes to achieve larger rewards), time (waiting for larger but delayed rewards), and ambiguity (willingness to explore the unknown to achieve rewards). Recent Findings Consistent with these theories and evidence, and also with major theories of addiction, developmental differ- ences in reward sensitivity, cognitive control to inhibit impulses, and their neural substrates partially explain adolescents’ greater willingness to use substances. However, meta-analyses show that preferences depend on a shift in cognitive representations from risk-reward tradeoffs to simple gist, as predicted by fuzzy-trace theory. Gist representations also facilitate adolescents’ ability to connect social norms and values to decisions. Summary Implications for periods of vulnerability, individual differences, and treatments for addiction are discussed, including opioid addiction. Addiction can begin when multiple vulnerabilities coincide at neurological, psychological, and sociocultural levels, but theory identifies potential strategies for prevention and treatment. . . . . . . Keywords Neural imbalance model Fuzzy-trace theory Reward sensitivity Ventral http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Addiction Reports Springer Journals

Neurobiological Models of Risky Decision-Making and Adolescent Substance Use

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/neurobiological-models-of-risky-decision-making-and-adolescent-jevSQIvN8A
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 by Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature
Subject
Medicine & Public Health; Psychiatry; Neurology
eISSN
2196-2952
D.O.I.
10.1007/s40429-018-0193-z
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose of Review This article provides an overview of evidence-based neurobiological models of risky decision-making, noting their implications for adolescent substance use. Drawing on brain and behavioral research, neural imbalance and fuzzy-trace theory are reviewed to explain developmental differences in preferences for risk (tolerating the possibility of bad outcomes to achieve larger rewards), time (waiting for larger but delayed rewards), and ambiguity (willingness to explore the unknown to achieve rewards). Recent Findings Consistent with these theories and evidence, and also with major theories of addiction, developmental differ- ences in reward sensitivity, cognitive control to inhibit impulses, and their neural substrates partially explain adolescents’ greater willingness to use substances. However, meta-analyses show that preferences depend on a shift in cognitive representations from risk-reward tradeoffs to simple gist, as predicted by fuzzy-trace theory. Gist representations also facilitate adolescents’ ability to connect social norms and values to decisions. Summary Implications for periods of vulnerability, individual differences, and treatments for addiction are discussed, including opioid addiction. Addiction can begin when multiple vulnerabilities coincide at neurological, psychological, and sociocultural levels, but theory identifies potential strategies for prevention and treatment. . . . . . . Keywords Neural imbalance model Fuzzy-trace theory Reward sensitivity Ventral

Journal

Current Addiction ReportsSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 3, 2018

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off