Qual Quant (2011) 45:1065–1066
Networks and geography in the economics of knowledge
Mario A. Maggioni · Teodora Erika Uberti
Published online: 30 March 2011
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011
Both comments by Anne ter Val and Nadine Massard add useful insights and add complemen-
tary perspective to the multifaceted issue we addressed in our paper and they demonstrated
that, at least in part, we achieve our stated aim of “ Demonstrate that networks and geogra-
phy are the necessary ingredients for every study of the innovative process at any level of
analysis: from individual agents, to institution/organization, from the regional to the national
and international level”.
In this rejoinder we will mainly focus on what we regard as the main issues raised in the
comments trying to expand our intuition on this complex matter.
Geographical versus network positioning
We are convinced that further efforts should be put in the attempt to disentangle the relational
and the geographical positioning effects on both the level of knowledge ﬂows and the effect
of innovative performance of emitting and receiving nodes.
On the one hand, this can be empirically implemented through the use of a group of control
variables for any level of analysis and this process could be definitely be more effective if the
network analysis is performed at the individual institution level rather than at a geographical
On the other hand, we still have doubts on the possibility of a total identiﬁcation and
correction of both the endogeneity (as suggested by Anne ter Val) and selection bias prob-
lems (as suggested by Nadine Massard) in this kind of analyses.
As far as the endogeneity is concerned, whether the characteristics of a given node are
determined by the existing relations with other nodes, or whether the existing relations of a
M. A. Maggioni (
) · T. E. Uberti
CSCC, DISEIS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italy
T. E. Uberti