Nematodes are considered as major plant parasites damaging most of the crops, and neem plant exhibits potential nematicidal and insecticidal properties. This study aimed to check nemato-toxic potential of neem (Azadirachta indica) plant using in vitro and in-planta trials against Meloidogyne incognita. The findings suggested that the neem extracts were lethal to second-stage juvenile (J2) and egg hatching with simultaneous enhancement in treated tomato plant growth. The egg numbers of M. incognita found less sensitive to the aqueous and alcoholic extracts than those of J2 as per LC50 values. Complete mortality of J2s was recorded at 40, 60, and 80% of neem standard extract (SE) dilutions and for undiluted SE of neem. The undiluted SE extract showed 100% inhibition of egg production. The highest reductions in the number of galls/root system, J2 population, and egg production were observed with 80, 85, and 82% SE as compared control (untreated distilled water). The maximum 250% growth increment was observed in the length of tomato roots supplemented with neem extracts. Resistance-related enzyme [phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POX)] activities in tomato plant have been increased significantly by supplementation with neem extracts. It appears that the aerial parts of neem (A. indica) extracts showed significant and sustainable eco-friendly nemato-toxic potential towards M. incognita growth inhibition and eradication using alcoholic extracts compared to aqueous. From this study, it was concluded that the neem aerial parts were useful for the control of M. incognita and could be a possible replacement for synthetic nematicides in crop protection with utilization in enhancement of specific enzyme activity in tomato plants.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 25, 2017
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