Purpose of Review After the connection between AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine Pandemrix and narcolepsy was recognized in 2010, research on narcolepsy has been more intensive than ever before. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with current concepts and recent findings on the Pandemrix-associated narcolepsy. Recent Findings After the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in 2009–2010, the risk of narcolepsy was increased 5- to 14-fold in children and adolescents and 2- to 7-fold in adults. According to observational studies, the risk of narcolepsy was elevated for 2 years after the Pandemrix vaccination. Some confounding factors and potential diagnostic biases may influence the observed narcolepsy risk in some studies, but it is unlikely that they would explain the clearly increased incidence in all the countries where Pandemrix was used. An increased risk of narcolepsy after natural H1N1 infection was reported from China, where pandemic influenza vaccination was not used. There is more and more evidence that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disease. All Pandemrix- associated narcolepsy cases have been positive for HLA class II DQB1*06:02 and novel predisposing genetic factors directly linking to the immune system have been identified. Even though recent studies have identified autoantibodies against multiple neuronal structures
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2018
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