SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NANOPOWDERS FOR PREPARING A NEW GENERATION
OF OXIDE CERAMICS
E. S. Lukin,
N. A. Makarov,
A. I. Kozlov,
N. A. Popova,
E. V. Anufrieva,
M. A. Vartanyan,
I. A. Kozlov,
M. N. Safina,
D. O. Lemeshev,
E. I. Gorelik,
and V. S. Bakunov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11 pp. 29 – 34, November 2009.
Original article submitted March 12, 2009.
Future application is presented for ultra- and nanodispersed powders in the technology of simple and complex
oxide ceramics. Ceramic materials based on these powders are considered relating to different functional
classes, their properties, features of their preparation and fields of application are described in detail. The de
velopment of ceramic materials with high operating properties will make it possible to resolve important sci
entific and technical problems connected with developing new technology.
Keywords: nanopowders, partially stabilized zirconium dioxide (PSZD), oxide ceramics, catalyst carrier, fil-
ters, optically transparent ceramics, cellular structure, bioceramics, hydroxyapatite.
An important area of technology is that relating to prepa-
ration of contemporary ceramics with improved operating
properties, i.e. ceramics manufactured using nano-dispersed
powders that have been developed in recent years, including
in our country. The most promising are some groups of ce-
ramic materials that will make it possible to resolve impor
tant scientific and technical problems connected with the de
velopment of new technology.
Highly dense strong wear-resistant ceramic materials
based on partially stabilized zirconium dioxide (PSZD),
aluminum oxide, and composites based on a mixture
of these oxides
With the discovery of transformation strengthening of
PSZD the problem of preparing strong, and especially strong
ceramic materials was resolve mainly due to the use of PSZD
and composites with other oxides. The majority of advanced
countries started to be concerned with technology for prepar
ing objects of PSZD, to study their properties and potential
fields of application. Apart from PSZD there is extensive use
of ceramic materials of the system Al
is in a tetragonal modification (the stabilizer if
3 mol.% Y
The ultimate strength in bending s
of PSZD ceramic
varies over wide limits, i.e. from 500 to 2500 MPa depend
ing on preparation technology, molding method and object
sintering regime. The highest values of s
2000 – 2500 MPa) and crack resistance (15 MPa × m
achieved with sintering billets of nanodispersed powders by
hot isostatic compaction . With the use of normal sintering
it is possible to achieve s
of 800 – 1000 MPa .
Achievements of ceramic materials based on PSZD,
apart from high strength and crack resistance, are the signifi
cant hardness, wear resistance, low friction coefficient in
combination with metals, a possibility of obtaining very high
surface finish (R
up to 0.01 mm). This ceramic is used to
prepare cores, draw plates and nozzles, cutting and drilling
tools, balls for various purposes, plungers and end seals for
pumps, wear-resistant objects for any purpose, objects with a
variety of porosity and high strength, etc.
The mechanism of ceramic transformation strengthening
is only possible in the case when within it after firing a crys
tal size significantly less than 1 mm is retained (Fig. 1). On
exceeding this size there is a sharp loss of material strength
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 6, 2009
1083-4877/09/5006-0425 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
D. I. Mendeleev Russian Chemical Technology Institute, Mos
Russian Medical Academy of Post-Diploma Education of the
Russian Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russia.
Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of
Sciences, Moscow, Russia.