Screening serum for the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA) belongs to the most common approach for the detection of prostate cancer. This review (with 156 refs.) addresses recent developments in PSA detection based on the use of various kinds of nanomaterials. It starts with an introduction into the field, the significance of testing for PSA, and on current limitations. A first main section treats electrochemical biosensors for PSA, with subsections on methods based on the use of gold electrodes, graphene or graphene-oxide, carbon nanotubes, hybrid nanoparticles, and other types of nanoparticles. It also covers electrochemical methods based on the enzyme-like activity of PSA, on DNA-, aptamer- and biofuel cell-based methods, and on the detection of PSA via its glycan part. The next main section covers optical biosensors, with subsections on methods making use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR), localized SPR and plasmonic ELISA-like schemes. This is followed by subsections on methods based on the use of fiber optics, fluorescence, chemiluminescence, Raman scattering and SERS, electrochemiluminescence and cantilever-based methods. The most sensitive biosensors are the electrochemical ones, with lowest limits of detection (down to attomolar concentrations), followed by mass cantilever sensing and electrochemilumenescent strategies. Optical biosensors show lower performance, but are still more sensitive compared to standard ELISA. The most commonly applied nanomaterials are metal and carbon-based ones and their hybrid composites used for different amplification strategies. The most attractive sensing schemes are summarized in a Table. The review ends with a section on conclusions and perspectives.
Microchimica Acta – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 14, 2017
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